Applied sciences

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences


Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences | 2019 | 67 | No. 5 |


AC and DC input characteristics of the flyback converter are analysed and investigated via Spice simulations and measurements. The influence of parasitic effects in converter components on input characteristics is studied in continuous conduction mode (CCM) and discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). The results of the calculations based on analytical formulas and averaged models are in a good accordance with Spice simulations and measurements.

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The distortion of air gap magnetic field caused by the rotor eccentricity contributes to the electromechanical coupling vibration of the brushless DC (BLDC) permanent magnet in-wheel motor (PMIWM) in electric vehicles (EV). The comfort of the BLDC in-wheel motor drive (IWMD) EV is seriously affected. To deeply investigate the electromechanical coupling vibration of the PMIWM under air gap eccentricity, the PMIWM, tyre and road excitation are analyzed first. The influence of air gap eccentricity on air gap magnetic density is investigated. The coupling law of the air gap and the unbalanced magnetic force (UMF) is studied. The coupling characteristics of eccentricity rate, air gap magnetic density, UMF, phase current and vibration acceleration are verified on the test bench in the laboratory. The mechanism of the electromechanical coupling vibration of the BLDC PMIWM under air gap static eccentricity (SE), dynamic eccentricity (DE) and hybrid eccentricity (HE) is revealed. DE and HE deteriorate the vibration acceleration amplitude, which contributes the electromechanical coupling vibration of the PMIWM. The research results provide a solid foundation for the vibration and noise suppression of the PMIWM in distributed drive EV.

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This paper presents the improved methodology for the direct calculation of steady-state periodic solutions for electromagnetic devices, as described by nonlinear differential equations, in the time domain. A novel differential operator is developed for periodic functions and the iterative algorithm determining periodic steady-state solutions in a selected set of time instants is identified. Its application to steady-state analysis is verified by an elementary example. The modified algorithm reduces the complexity of steady-state analysis, particularly for electromagnetic devices described by high-dimensional nonlinear differential equations.

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Currently, the distribution system has been adapted to include a variety of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs). Maximum benefits can be extracted from the distribution system with high penetration of DERs by transforming it into a sustainable, isolated microgrid. The key aspects to be addressed for this transformation are the determination of the slack bus and assurance of reliable supply to the prioritized loads even during contingency. This paper explores the possibilities of transforming the existing distribution system into a sustainable isolated network by determining the slack bus and the optimal locations and capacity of Distributed Generators (DGs) in the isolated network, taking into account the contingencies due to faults in the network. A combined sensitivity index is formulated to determine the most sensitive buses for DG placement. Further, the reliability based on the loss of load in the isolated system when a fault occurs is evaluated, and the modifications required in for reliability improvement are discussed. The supremacy of the transformed isolated network with distributed generators is comprehended by comparing the results from conventional IEEE 33-bus grid connected test system and modified IEEE 33-bus isolated test system having no interconnection with the main grid.

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The article presents issues related to the application of a moving horizon estimator for state variables reconstruction in an advanced control structure of a drive system with an elastic joint. Firstly, a short review of the commonly used methods for state estimation in presented. Then, a description of a state controller structure follows. The design methodology based on the poles-placement method is briefly described. Next, the mathematical algorithm of MHE is presented and some crucial features of MHE are analysed. Then, selected simulation and experimental results are shown and described. The investigation shows, among others, the influence of window length on the quality of state variables estimation.

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We propose a class of m-crane control systems, that generalizes two- and three-dimensional crane systems. We prove that each representant of the described class is feedback equivalent to the second order chained form with drift. In consequence, we prove that it is differentially flat. Then we investigate its control properties and derive a control law for tracking control problem.

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The paper is intented to show a new, state space, discrete, non integer order model of a one-dimensional heat transfer process. The proposed model derives directly from time continuous, state space model and it uses the discrete Grünwald-Letnikov operator to express the fractional order difference with respect to time. Stability and spectrum decomposition for the proposed model are recalled, the accuracy and convergence are analyzed too. The convergence of the proposed model does not depend on parameters of heater and measuring sensors. The dimension of the model assuring stability and predefined rate of convergence and stability is estimated. Analytical results are confirmed by experiments.

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This paper presents control method for multiple two-wheeled mobile robots moving in formation. Trajectory tracking algorithm from [7] is extended by collision avoidance, and is applied to the different type of formation task: each robot in the formation mimics motion of the virtual leader with a certain displacement. Each robot avoids collisions with other robots and circular shaped, static obstacles existing in the environment. Artificial potential functions are used to generate repulsive component of the control. Stability analysis of the closed-loop system is based on Lyapunov-like function. Effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is illustrated by simulation results.

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This paper proposes a practical tuning of closed loops with model based predictive control. The data assumed to be known from the process is the result of the bump test commonly applied in industry and known in engineering as step response data. A simplified context is assumed such that no prior know-how is required from the plant operator. The relevance of this assumption is very realistic in the context of first time users, both for industrial operators and as educational competence of first hand student training. A first order plus dead time is approximated and the controller parameters immediately follow by heuristic rules. Analysis has been performed in simulation on representative dynamics with guidelines for the various types of processes. Three single-input-single-output experimental setups have been used with no expert users available in different locations – both educational and industrial – these setups are representative for practical cases: a variable time delay dominant system, a non-minimum phase system and an open loop unstable system. Furthermore, in a multivariable control context, a train of separation columns has been tested for control in simulation, followed by experimental tests on a laboratory system with similar dynamics, i.e. a sextuple coupled water tank system. The results indicate the proposed methodology is suitable for hands-on tuning of predictive control loops with some limitations on performance and multivariable process control.

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This paper presents an innovative method of technology mapping of the circuits in ALM appearing in FPGA devices by Intel. The essence of the idea is based on using triangle tables that are connected with different configurations of blocks. The innovation of the proposed method focuses on the possibility of choosing an appropriate configuration of an ALM block, which is connected with choosing an appropriate decomposition path. The effectiveness of the proposed technique of technology mapping is proved by experiments conducted on combinational and sequential circuits.

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One of the mathematical tools to measure the generation rate of new patterns along a sequence of symbols is the Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZ). Under additional assumptions, LZ is an estimator of entropy in the Shannon sense. Since entropy is considered as a measure of randomness, this means that LZ can be treated also as a randomness indicator. In this paper, we used LZ concept to the analysis of different flow regimes in cold flow combustor models. Experimental data for two combustor’s configurations motivated by efficient mixing need were considered. Extensive computer analysis was applied to develop a complexity approach to the analysis of velocity fluctuations recorded with hot-wire anemometry and PIV technique. A natural encoding method to address these velocity fluctuations was proposed. It turned out, that with this encoding the complexity values of the sequences are well correlated with the values obtained by means of RMS method (larger/smaller complexity larger/smaller RMS). However, our calculations pointed out the interesting result that most complex, this means most random, behavior does not overlap with the “most turbulent” point determined by the RMS method, but it is located in the point with maximal average velocity. It seems that complexity method can be particularly useful to analyze turbulent and unsteady flow regimes. Moreover, the complexity can also be used to establish other flow characteristics like its ergodicity or mixing.

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The article presents an example of the use of functional series for the analysis of nonlinear systems for discrete time signals. The homogeneous operator is defined and it is decomposed into three component operators: the multiplying operator, the convolution operator and the alignment operator. An important case from a practical point of view is considered – a cascade connection of two polynomial systems. A new, binary algorithm for determining the sequence of complex kernels of cascade from two sequences of kernels of component systems is presented. Due to its simplicity, it can be used during iterative processes in the analysis of nonlinear systems (e.g. feedback systems).

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In the calculations presented in the article, an artificial immune system (AIS) was used to plan the routes of the fleet of delivery vehicles supplying food products to customers waiting for the delivery within a specified, short time, in such a manner so as to avoid delays and minimize the number of delivery vehicles. This type of task is classified as an open vehicle routing problem with time windows (OVRPWT). It comes down to the task of a traveling salesman, which belongs to NP-hard problems. The use of the AIS to solve this problem proved effective. The paper compares the results of AIS with two other varieties of artificial intelligence: genetic algorithms (GA) and simulated annealing (SA). The presented methods are controlled by sets of parameters, which were adjusted using the Taguchi method. Finally, the results were compared, which allowed for the evaluation of all these methods. The results obtained using AIS proved to be the best.

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The paper deals with spectral and lasing characteristics of thulium-doped optical fibers fabricated by means of two doping techniques,
i.e. via a conventional solution-doping method and via a nanoparticle-doping method. The difference in fabrication was the application of a suspension of aluminum oxide nanoparticles of defined size instead of a conventional chloride-containing solution. Samples of thulium-doped silica fibers having nearly identical chemical composition and waveguiding properties were fabricated. The sample fabricated by means of the nanoparticle-doping method exhibited longer lifetime, reflecting other observations and the trend already observed with the fibers doped with erbium and aluminum nanoparticles. The fiber fabricated by means of the nanoparticle-doping method exhibited a lower lasing threshold (by ~20%) and higher slope efficiency (by ~5% rel.). All these observed differences are not extensive and deserve more in-depth research; they may imply a positive influence of the nanoparticle approach on properties of rare-earth-doped fibers for fiber lasers.

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Editorial office

Editorial Board 2020-2022


M.P. Kazmierkowski, Warsaw University of Technology

Honorary (Past) Editor-in Chief:

T. Kaczorek, Warsaw University of Technology

Deputy Editor-in-Chief:

A. Rogalski, Division IV Technical Sciences PAN

B. Błachowski, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN

Board of Topical Co-editors:

Artificial and Computational Intelligence

S. Osowski and B. Sawicki, Warsaw University of Technology

Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology

A. Liebert, Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering PAN

Civil Engineering

L. Czarnecki, Building Research Institute, ITB, Warsaw

Control, Robotics and Informatics

J. Klamka and A. Babiarz, Silesian Technical University

A. Borkowski, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN

Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics

M. Mrozowski and A. Lamęcki, Gdansk University of Technology

Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics

B. Błachowski and P. Korczyk, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN

A. Tylikowski, Lukasiewicz Research Network - Institute of Mechanised Construction and Rock Mining, Warsaw

Materials Science and Nanotechnology

B. Major and P. Czaja, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAN

Power Systems and Power Electronics

M.P. Kazmierkowski, Warsaw University of Technology

International Editorial Advisory Board

R. Asthana, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, USA

Xu Binshi, China Association of Plant Engineering, Beijing, P.R. China

F. Blaabjerg, Aalborg University, Denmark

C. Cecati, University of L’Aquila, Italy

A. Cichocki, RIKEN Institute, Tokyo, Japan

M. David, National Polytechnique de Toulouse, France

R. Ebner, Materials Centre Leoben, Leoben, Austria

E. Fornasini, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

L.G. Franquelo, University of Sevilla, Spain

M. Gad-el-Hak, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA

M. Giersig, Free University of Berlin, Germany

D. van Gemert, Catholic University Leuven, KU Leuven, Belgium

L. Keviczky, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary

V. Kučera, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

R. Kennel, Technical University Munich, Germany

T.A. Kowalewski, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN

E. Levi, Liverpool John Moore University, UK

G. Maier, Technical University of Milan, Milan, Italy

K.F. Man, City University of Hong Kong,

R. Maniewski, Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering PAN

H.A. Mang, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria

H. Mihashi, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan

S. Mindess, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

D.A. Mlynski, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany

A.S. Nowak, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA

K. Ohnishi, Keio University, Yokohama, Japan

A. Öberg, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden

W. Pedrycz, University of Alberta, Canada

S. Przemieniecki, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA

M. Razeghi, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA

J. Rodriguez, University of Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile

J.V. Sloten, Catholic University Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

B.M. Wilamowski, University of Auburn, Alabama, USA

W. Włosiński , Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

A.L. Yarin, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA

Du Xiangwan, Chinese Academy of Engineering, China

J. Żurada, Department of Computer Engineering, University of Louisville, USA


Editorial Office:

Pałac Kultury i Nauki

Wydział IV Nauk Technicznych PAN

Pl. Defilad 1

PL 00-901 Warszawa

Copy Editor:

Renata Podraza, e-mail:


Ewa Trojanowska,

Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors

About the Journal

The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published by the Division IV: Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The journal is peer‐reviewed and is published both in printed and electronic form ( It is established for the publication of original high quality papers from multidisciplinary Engineering sciences with the following topics preferred:

• Artificial and Computational Intelligence,

• Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology,

• Civil Engineering,

• Control, Informatics and Robotics,

• Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics,

• Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics,

• Material Science and Nanotechnology,

• Power Systems and Power Electronics.

General data:

Format of the journal – A4 printed and electronic form,

Paper type – offset

Colourfulness – full colour at an extra charge,

The volume of the journal – 200 pages (ca 20 papers) + 4 cover pages,

Frequency of publication – bimonthly,

ISSN: 0239-7528 (print version),

ISSN: 2300-1917 (on line version),

DOI: 10.2478/bpasts


Journal citation: Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech.

ISO: Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.-Tech. Sci.,


Acronym in the Editorial System: BPASTS

Journal Metrics:

JCR Impact Factor 2017: 1.361

5 Year Impact Factor 2017: 1.323

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.526

Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 1.208

Impact per Publication (IPP) 2015: 1.158

The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 2017: 25 points

Manuscript types:

Invited reviews presenting the state of the knowledge and/or devoted to novel topics,

• Refereed research papers reporting on original scientific or technological achievements,

• Refereed papers in special issues/sections serving as conference proceedings arranged by guest editors.

Special Section Policy

Proposals of original Special Sections within the scope of the Journal may be submitted to the Editorial Office. Special Section submission rules are described in detail at: Edytorial Systems

Guest Editor form needed for submitting a Special Section proposal: Edytorial systems

Manuscript Submission Policy

All manuscripts submitted for publication should be original. Manuscripts published or under consideration for publication elsewhere should not be submitted and will not be considered. Submission of a paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that if accepted it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher.

However, manuscripts based on papers published at related conferences and workshops proceedings may be submitted for consideration provided that: (1) the papers are not identical (similarity index must be below 50%), (2) the authors cite their earlier conference paper on which this new work is based, (3) the journal publication includes clearly shown novel elements (e.g., more comprehensive experiments).

Manuscript submission for review

The Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech now employs a Web-based manuscript submission and peer-review tracking system called Editorial System. Authors must submit their manuscript electronically on the web:

From this entry page, access can be obtained to all information required for the submission of a manuscript. First‐time users must create an Author’s account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. All manuscripts receive individual identification codes that should be used in any correspondence with regard to the publication process. For the authors already registered in the Editorial System it is enough to enter their username and password to login as an author (Sign in).

Author(s) will be notified about registration and manuscript review process by e-mail.

The manuscripts must be uploaded as a single PDF file.

If you experience difficulties with the manuscript submission website, please contact the Copy Editor of the Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech (Anna Jurkiewicz: of authors and their affiliation should be removed from the manuscripts for the review process in order to have a fair evaluation of their manuscript. All authors of the manuscript are responsible for its content; they must have agreed to its publication and have given the corresponding author the authority to act on their behalf in all matters pertaining to publication. The Corresponding Author is responsible for informing the coauthors of the manuscript status throughout the submission, review, and production process. All submitted papers are checked using iThenticate plagiarism detection software.

Manuscript preparation

1. The manuscript should be written in clear and concise English.

2. For manuscript preparation please use the attached Word or LaTeX template.

3. Please remember that in the .pdf version of the manuscript for evaluation process author(s) name(s) and affiliation should be removed.

4. Authors should consult a recent issue of the journal for style if possible.

Manuscript decision and Proofs

Manuscript evaluations are assigned one of four outcomes: Accept, Minor Revisions, Major Revisions, and Reject. Manuscripts with "Minor Revision" do not require a second review. All manuscripts receiving a "Major Revision" evaluation must be subjected to a second review. Rejected manuscripts are given no further consideration. Normally, manuscripts that receive a "Major Revision" decision have only one additional chance for revision and the revised version should be uploaded to the Editorial System within six weeks. If the author(s) failed to make satisfactory changes, the manuscript is rejected. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to suit house style.

Transfer of Copyright Agreement

Once the paper is initially accepted, the authors are assumed to have transferred the copyright of the paper to the publisher. Please fill the attached Form, sign, and add to the final version of the manuscript as separate .pdf file.

It is also available on the webpage

Proofs will be sent to the author (first named author if no corresponding author is identified for multi-authored papers) and should be returned within 48 hours of receipt.

Fees for printing the article

The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published in Open Access, which means that all papers are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. By submitting a paper for publication, authors declare that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their paper. In exchange for a fee for printing, the PDF file of published paper is available at the Open Access platform:

National (foreign) authors:

• The flat fee of 1230 PLN (approximately 300 EUR) per paper

Exempt from the fee are:

• Authors of articles ordered by the Editorial Board (Invited papers)

50% discount for:

• Reviewers (who performed at least 5 reviews per year) – one paper per year

• Guest Editors (the discount is valid only within the special section guest-edited by the author)

Mandatory over-length charges of 200 PLN (approximately 50 EUR) per page

in case the paper exceeds

• 8 printed double-column pages for regular research papers,

• 8 printed double-column pages for Special issue/section papers,

• No limit for invited (review) papers.

In addition, each color page will be charged an additional fee according to the current cost of printing. Otherwise, the paper will be printed in black-white.

Information needed for Proforma Invoice

1. Author’s/Authors’ Last name(s), Name(s), e-mail

2. Title of the paper

3. Exact name of the payer (person / institution or other legal entity realizing the transfer)

4. Address of the payer

5. Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN, in Polish NIP) – only when paid by an institution or another legal entity!

Check list for final submission to the Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech (after review)

1. Is your manuscript up to date? Did you include references, which were published while your manuscript was being processed? It is expected that at least 20% of references are to journal papers published in the last two years. Authors are welcome to consider reference papers published in the Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech. In order to find the recent Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech. papers please visit Open Access platform:

2. Is your title adequate and is your abstract correctly written? In the age of electronic publications it is not easy to be noticed! Authors have to do everything possible so the paper will be seen and read. Therefore, very careful wording should be used in the title and in the abstract. Without a proper and interesting title and abstract a great paper might never be downloaded from the de Gruyter platform and read.

3. Does the manuscript clearly describe problem(s) and your accomplishments? Can your manuscript be shortened? Are there sentences or paragraphs that do not provide important information and can be eliminated?

4. Is the length of your manuscript adequate? Please notice that for long papers, you may face mandatory over length charges per page.

5. Please make sure that the fee for printing your manuscript is paid.

Open Access policy

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

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