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Abstrakt

Michal Walicki (1904–1966) studied Art History at the University of Warsaw (1924–1929), where he received his doctorate for his dissertation on the murals in the Chapel of the Holy Trinity in the Castle of Lublin (1418), under the guidance of Prof. Zygmunt Batowski. He worked in the Department of Polish Architecture at the Warsaw Technical University, at the Warsaw School of Fine Arts (later the Academy of Fine Arts), at the National Museum, and the Art History Institute of the Warsaw University. In 1933, his earned his habilitation for his thesis on the stylistic development of panel painting in fifteenth–century Poland. During World War II, he participated in the resistance movement; he was arrested (in 1949) and put in prison. After his release (in 1953), he combined work at the Institute of History of Art at the Warsaw University and the State Institute of Art (later the Institute of Art of the Polish Academy of Sciences). Michał Walicki’s academic activities encompassed a surprisingly wide spectrum of subjects, though his particular field of interest was painting. He had a ‘positivist’ temperament, concerned with a painstaking search for new works of art and the collecting of material, and above all with cataloguing and sharing the collections. In texts written before the war he built a firm foundation for the study of panel painting in fifteenth–century Poland, although his narrow national perspective is now certainly difficult to accept. After his employment at the National Museum in Warsaw, he changed his profile of research, focusing on modern painting (particularly Dutch), but also on the best understood popularization and education through art. After the war, he initiated and coordinated the work on a series of syntheses, setting new standards of quality in Polish academic studies. He belonged to the narrow circle of great humanists who could write about art with passion, in a manner accessible and understandable to all. He developed his own, easily recognizable style, impressionistic in character, well–suited to aesthetic experiences. As an outstanding university lecturer and museum official, he became one of the founders and most important authorities of the Warsaw school of art history, and as a personality had a profound impact on students and friends led by Jan Białostocki. Above all, he instilled in them a broad outlook on matters of art and the importance of publishing in foreign languages.
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One of the characteristic features of the architectural landscape of the Stalinist era in Poland (post 1949) was the widespread use of standard designs. Initially these were not part of the propaganda of socialist realist architecture. The ideological justification of the use of standard designs as a “reflection of the era in which they arise” only began in 1953. During the following three years, a period in which the slow process of undermining Stalinist dogmas in architecture took place, supplanted by an openly technocratic vision of an industrialized architecture, the problem of standard designs regularly arose in contemporary discourse. One aspect was the growing criticism of the monotony of housing estates erected throughout the country by the state Workers Housing Department. The issue of these typical projects also came up at the National Conference of Architects in March 1956, where severe criticisms of socialist realism were voiced. The criticism arising from the architects’ milieu was heard alongside positive assessments from those close to the construction industry, who saw standard projects as instruments for producing an “architectural background worthy of a socialist society” in the Polish landscape. The adoption of “theses on typification” in 1959 (probably unwittingly repeating the words used by Hermann Muthesius in 1914) by the team of Władysław Gomułka finally terminated this period of intellectual fermentation, administratively imposing the use of standard projects and industrialised building technologies.One of the characteristic features of the architectural landscape of the Stalinist era in Poland (post 1949) was the widespread use of standard designs. Initially these were not part of the propaganda of socialist realist architecture. The ideological justification of the use of standard designs as a “reflection of the era in which they arise” only began in 1953. During the following three years, a period in which the slow process of undermining Stalinist dogmas in architecture took place, supplanted by an openly technocratic vision of an industrialized architecture, the problem of standard designs regularly arose in contemporary discourse. One aspect was the growing criticism of the monotony of housing estates erected throughout the country by the state Workers Housing Department. The issue of these typical projects also came up at the National Conference of Architects in March 1956, where severe criticisms of socialist realism were voiced. The criticism arising from the architects’ milieu was heard alongside positive assessments from those close to the construction industry, who saw standard projects as instruments for producing an “architectural background worthy of a socialist society” in the Polish landscape. The adoption of “theses on typification” in 1959 (probably unwittingly repeating the words used by Hermann Muthesius in 1914) by the team of Władysław Gomułka finally terminated this period of intellectual fermentation, administratively imposing the use of standard projects and industrialised building technologies.
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In 2015 and 2016, a reconnaissance study have been performed on a fortified hillfort in Lipnik, located between Sandomierz and Opatów, which had been discovered in 2015. Neither remnants of the buildings nor the presence of a cultural layer that could indicate permanent, or at least longer residence, have been found on the hillfort. Apart from the ceramics, a series of metal objects were found on the hillfort: silver beads, fragment of silver earring with ‘grape’ pendant, bronze rings, silver and bronze applications of leather straps, strap-ends, pendants and buckles from harness or saddlebags, iron and lead weights, iron arrowheads. Some of the metal artefacts have distinct analogies in Hungarian materials from 10th–11th century. Similar to the materials from a nearby settlement in Kaczyce, they indicate the possibility that groups or units of Hungarian origin that followed nomadic traditions had been staying in the vicinity of Sandomierz between the second half of 10th and the first half of 11th century. They might had been warriors serving in one of the Piast princes, captives brought by Bolesław I the Brave or merchants participating in international trade.
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The paper refers to planning deliveries of food products (especially those available in certain seasons) to the recipients: supermarket networks. The paper presents two approaches to solving problems of simultaneous selection of suppliers and transportation modes and construction of product flow schedules with these transportation modes. Linear mathematical models have been built for the presented solution approaches. The cost criterion has been taken into consideration in them. The following costs have been taken into account: purchase of products by individual recipients, transport services, storing of products supplied before the planned deadlines and penalties for delays in supply of products. Two solution approaches (used for transportation planning and selection of suppliers and selection of transportation modes) have been compared. The monolithic approach calls for simultaneous solutions for the problems of supplier selection and selection of transportation modes. In the alternative (hierarchical) solution approach, suppliers are selected first, and then transportation companies and their relevant transportation modes are selected. The results of computational experiments are used for comparison of the hierarchical and monolithic solution approaches.
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Cykl życia obudowy wyrobisk korytarzowych rozpoczyna się zdefiniowaniem potrzeby opracowania nowej obudowy lub doborem obudowy typowej, a kończy jej wyrabowaniem, podsadzeniem wyrobiska lub przejściem w zawał. Czas życia – funkcjonowania – zależy od przeznaczenia wyrobiska i może zmieniać się od kilku miesięcy do wielu lat. Na przestrzeni tego czasu, w różnych etapach stosowane są specjalistyczne programy komputerowe CAE (ang. Computer Aided Engineering – komputerowe wspomaganie prac inżynierskich) wspomagające projektantów i użytkowników w projektowaniu i użytkowaniu obudowy. W Głównym Instytucie Górnictwa powstało wiele programów wspomagających projektowanie i dobór obudowy wyrobisk korytarzowych. Należy tu wymienić opisane dalej programy do projektowania odrzwi, doboru obudowy, oceny jej stanu technicznego oraz zbierania informacji o jej pracy w wyrobisku. Pierwszym programem stosowanym w procesie projektowania obudowy jest program ODRZWIA. Pozwala on na zaprojektowanie geometrii odrzwi obudowy. Użytkownik wprowadza parametry poszczególnych elementów – długości i promienie krzywizny oraz określa wielkość zakładek. Dysponując geometrią odrzwi możliwe jest określenie ich parametrów podpornościowch, w czym stosowane jest komercyjne oprogramowanie do analiz wytrzymałościowych. Uzyskane z analiz parametry podpornościowe są wykorzystywane w procesie doboru obudowy, w którym stosowany jest program UZDO, oparty na „Uproszczonych zasadach doboru obudowy...” (Rułka red. 2001) W programie tym po zdefiniowaniu parametrów skał i górotworu w otoczeniu wyrobiska oblicza się obciążenie, jakie będzie działać na obudowę, a po wybraniu z wbudowanego katalogu konkretnych odrzwi obliczany jest ich rozstaw. W dalszej kolejności użytkowania wyrobiska i obudowy stosowane są programy do analizy ich pracy (ANKIETA), a także do oceny ich stanu technicznego ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem stopnia skorodowania (KOROZJA).
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Złoże dolomitów Ujków Stary jest pozabilansowym fragmentem dawnego złoża rud cynku i ołowiu kopalni Bolesław. Opracowanie jego dokumentacji geologicznej z 2006 roku stworzyło nowe perspektywy pozyskania surowca skalnego ze skał dolomitycznych dolnego i środkowego wapienia muszlowego, występujących w serii złożowej. Skały te są wyraźnie zróżnicowane pod względem cech strukturalnych i teksturalnych oraz udziału składników mineralnych. W artykule przedstawiono charakterystykę tej zmienności na podstawie badań próbek skał pobranych z różnych części dwóch poziomów eksploatacyjnych złoża. Stwierdzono, że w złożu występują dolomity o strukturze mikrosparytowej i sparytowej (drobnokrystalicznej i średniokrystalicznej) oraz brekcje dolomityczne. Dowiedziono, że różnorodność petrograficzna skał, związana z ich genezą, ma istotny wpływ na zmienność ich podstawowych fizyczno-mechanicznych właściwości: gęstości objętościowej, nasiąkliwości i wytrzymałości na ściskanie. Ta zmienność petrograficzna skał decyduje także o niejednorodności jakościowej uzyskanych z nich kruszyw. Podstawą do wnioskowania w tym zakresie były wyniki badań odporności na ścieranie (wskaźnik mikro-Devala) i rozdrabnianie (wskaźnik Los Angeles) oraz ocena poziomu reaktywności alkalicznej kruszyw reprezentujących wybrane odmiany dolomitów oraz mieszaninę wszystkich wydzielonych odmian. Stwierdzono, że poszczególne partie kruszywa dolomitowego, pozyskiwane z różnych części złoża, mogą odpowiadać odmiennym kategoriom, określonym przez normy PN-EN. Wykazują one tym samym zróżnicowaną przydatność do stosowania ich między innymi w betonach, mieszankach bitumicznych stosowanych w powierzchniach przeznaczonych do ruchu oraz w niezwiązanych i związanych hydraulicznie materiałach używanych w obiektach budowlanych i budownictwie drogowym.
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Cultural, ideological and social sources of anarchy in spatial management in Poland. The article is an individual statement about the state of the steering sphere of spatial management in Poland. The author puts forward the thesis that for years there has been anarchy in it, which deepened in the period of systemic transformation. Despite the established legal framework of spatial management, consistent with European standards and the existence of spatial planning institutions at local, regional and national level, manifestations of anarchy are widely visible. This is an important, though not the only, reason for the widely observed and repeatedly documented disorder and even spatial chaos in the material sphere of spatial management in Poland. The sources of this anarchy are sought in a specific Polish culture, ideologies professed by professionals related to spatial management, and in old and new social divisions.
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Circular economy – a new approach in the understanding of the human–environment relationship. The work presented the assumptions of the circular economy as a new concept of the economy functioning with the method of production “from cradle to cradle” constituting the opposition to the commonly used linear economy approach (take, make, dispose). Work discussed also the impact on the quality of human life and the management of environmental resources. Functional assumptions of the circular economy and its territorial dimension were presented, especially in urban areas where the green economy and sharing economy mechanisms are used. The potential for economic growth and the creation of new jobs was also emphasized due to the implementation of circular economy in the EU countries.
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Abstract In this paper a new conception of safety logic microcontroller (BML) is described, together with its physical hardware realization. The unit has various mechanisms which increase its safety and reliability, so that it can satisfy rigorous requirements of safety-critical systems. Thus, the BML unit uses some untypical and innovative technical solutions. The new approach to safety systems development allowed to propose a new conception. The paper describes also physical realization of small multiprocessor BML unit for management of decision-control systems adopted to critical usage.
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Two types of names for ‘Turkish delight’ are known in the Slavic languages: rahat-lokum ~ ratluk, and lokum. Even though most etymological dictionaries derive them from the same Arabo-Turkish etymon, their different structures are not discussed and the phonetic differences not explained. The aim of this paper is to establish the relative chronology of changes made to the original phrase, as well as to point out some problems which still remain more or less obscure.
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In the article there are presented the most popular Jewish names selected from the municipal books of Grabowiec and fi les of city Grabowiec XVII and XVIII century. As a result of gathered materials it has been found that Jews adapted their names to the patterns existing on the area of residence. The formant –ko was especially popular. That formant was the most popular in Ukrainian antroponymy: Heszko, Icko, Judko, Lewko. To the most popular names used by Jews as Icko (17), Lewko (11), Marko (5), Moszko (4) the names of the origin of the Bible: Dawid (6), Juda (5), Aron (4), Boruch (3), Hebraic: Jakub (9), Chaim (5), Maier (4), Yiddish: Leyba (6), Zusman (3). can be added. Frequencies complement the variants of the specifi c names.
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