Land consolidation procedures are an attempt to comprehensively change the existing spatial structure of land in rural areas. This treatment also brings many other social and economic benefits, contributing to the development of consolidated areas. Land consolidation in mountain areas differs in many respects from those implemented in areas with more favorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture. The unfavorable values of land fragmentation indices, terrain conditions and lower than the average soil quality affect both the dominant forms of agricultural activity and the limited opportunities to improve the distribution of plots in space, parameters of shape, and the area as a result of land consolidation. For this reason, the effectiveness of land consolidation in mountain areas can be achieved by improving the quality of transportation network and the accessibility of the plots, arranging ownership issues and improving the quality of cadastral documentation. This article presents the evaluation of the measures of effectiveness of land consolidation realized in mountain areas on the example of Łetownia Village in the Małopolska Province, located in the southern part of Poland. Selected village is an area with unfavorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture and high values of land fragmentation indices.
One of the main purpose of accurate blasting in open pit mining is to achieve optimum rock fragmentation. The degree of rock fragmentation plays a significant role in order to control and minimise the overall production cost including loading, hauling and crushing. In the present paper, the application of a Number-Size (N-S) fractal model is intended to classify the blast fragmentation size in the Jalal-Abad iron mine, SW Iran, using GoldSize image analysis software for four blasting with the obtained result being compared with Kuz-Ram curves. To do this, the fractal dimensions via N-S log-log plots were generated based on the output of the GoldSize software. The results indicated that the fragmented rocks have a multifractal nature with four/five different fragmented populations in terms of size namely; the fine rocks with the size of less than 16 cm, Mean-fragment values between 16 and 45 cm, In-range between 45 and 70 cm and finally, oversize larger than 70 cm.