The frictional resistance coefficient of ventilation of a roadway in a coal mine is a very important technical parameter in the design and renovation of mine ventilation. Calculations based on empirical formulae and field tests to calculate the resistance coefficient have limitations. An inversion method to calculate the mine ventilation resistance coefficient by using a few representative data of air flows and node pressures is proposed in this study. The mathematical model of the inversion method is developed based on the principle of least squares. The measured pressure and the calculated pressure deviation along with the measured flow and the calculated flow deviation are considered while defining the objective function, which also includes the node pressure, the air flow, and the ventilation resistance coefficient range constraints. The ventilation resistance coefficient inversion problem was converted to a nonlinear optimisation problem through the development of the model. A genetic algorithm (GA) was adopted to solve the ventilation resistance coefficient inversion problem. The GA was improved to enhance the global and the local search abilities of the algorithm for the ventilation resistance coefficient inversion problem.
The paper is concerned with the most fundamental compositional divide to be found in lyrical discourse, consisting in that the latter one is normally split into an empirical part, presenting the author’s concrete experience, and a focal part, where the author discovers some signifi cant truth or/and changes her attitude towards the world. It is claimed in the paper that, more generally, one of the specifi c linguistic properties of focal fragments is their higher and/or specially underscored informativity, and, in particular, one of the means recruited to emphasize it is inverted word order.
A two-year-long data set of air temperature from four different altitudes above Petuniabukta, central Spitsbergen, was analysed in order to assess the near-surface temperature lapse rates and the relative frequency of air temperature inversion occurrence. From August 2013 to July 2015, air temperatures at adjacent altitudes in Petuniabukta were strongly correlated. The near-surface lapse rates in all three layers differed significantly both from the average lapse rate in the international standard atmosphere (0.65°C 100 m-1) and the lapse rate calculated by linear regression. A pronounced annual cycle was detected in the lowermost air layer (from 23 to 136 m a.s.l.) with a variable near-surface lapse rate in the winter months, while an annual cycle was not apparent in the air layers above 136 m a.s.l. The lowermost layer was also characterized by a notable daily cycle in near-surface lapse rate in spring and autumn. Air temperature inversions occurred in up to 80% of the study period in the air layer below 136 m a.s.l., with the relative frequency being much lower in the other two air layers. The air temperature inversions lasted as long as 139 hours. A case study revealed that one of the strongest air temperature inversions was connected to an area of lower pressure gradients at the 850-hPa pressure level.
In this paper, a new simple method for determination of flow parameters, axial dispersion coefficients DL and Péclet numbers Pe was presented. This method is based on an accurate measurement model considering pulse tracer response. Our method makes it possible to test the character of gas flow motion and precisely measure flow parameters for different pressures and temperatures. The idea of combining the transfer function, numerical inversion of the Laplace transform and optimisation method gives many benefits like a simple and effective way of finding solution of inverse problem and model coefficients. The calculated values of flow parameters (DL and/or Pe) suggest that in the considered case the gas flow is neither plug flow nor perfect mixing under operation condition. The obtained outcomes agree with the gas flow theory. Calculations were performed using the CAS program type, Maple®.
In the paper, a procedure for precise and expedited design optimization of unequal power split patch couplers is proposed. Our methodology aims at identifying the coupler dimensions that correspond to the circuit operating at the requested frequency and featuring a required power split. At the same time, the design process is supposed to be computationally efficient. The proposed methodology involves two types of auxiliary models (surrogates): an inverse one, constructed from a set of reference designs optimized for particular power split values, and a forward one which represents the circuit S-parameter gradients as a function of the power split ratio. The inverse model directly yields the values of geometry parameters of the coupler for any required power split, whereas the forward model is used for a post-scaling correction of the circuit characteristics. For the sake of illustration, a 10-GHz circular sector patch coupler is considered. The power split ratio of the structure is re-designed within a wide range of ��6 dB to 0 dB. As demonstrated, precise scaling (with the power split error smaller than 0.02 dB and the operating frequency error not exceeding 0.05 GHz) can be achieved at the cost of less than three full-wave EM simulations of the coupler. Numerical results are validated experimentally.
This paper presents a robust model free controller (RMFC) for a class of uncertain continuous-time single-input single-output (SISO) minimum-phase nonaffine-in-control systems. Firstly, the existence of an unknown dynamic inversion controller that can achieve control objectives is demonstrated. Afterwards, a fast approximator is designed to estimate as best as possible this dynamic inversion controller. The proposed robust model free controller is an equivalent realization of the designed fast approximator. The perturbation theory and Tikhonov’s theorem are used to analyze the stability of the overall closed-loop system. The performance of the developped controller are verified experimentally in the position control of a pneumatic actuator system.
In the dumps of metallurgical enterprises of Kazakhstan about 700 million tons of waste products are generated annually, and are polluting the atmosphere and the soil. The concentration of valuable components in waste products are no lower than in natural resources. The reserves of coal in the Ekibastuz basin are estimated to be more than a billion tons, and almost half of this is made up of ash. Every year, up to 30 million tons of ash-cinder waste is generated, which presents a serious threat to nature. Gallium and germanium concentrations in dumps are approximately 200 grams per ton, which is comparable to the content in coal before processing. The current research aims at creating a unit to obtain hydrogen-enriched water gas from Ekibastuz coal, with the production of zinc, gallium and germanium sublimates, copper-containing cast iron, slag wool and cast stone, through the joint processing of zinc-rich slag and ash-cinder wastes from thermal power plants. To achieve this, we used previous methods of extreme energy saving and a new method, the smelt layer with inversion phase. Experimental results from the “reactor inversion phase – rotary kiln” (RIPh) unit, which processed zinc-germanium contained slag, showed the potential to extract germanium from zinc sublimates, to reduce iron to the form of cupreous cast iron, and to obtain combustible gases and smelt suitable for slag-wool production. Calculations performed on the joint processing of Ekibastuz coal and zinc-rich slag using the proposed unit “reactor of inversion phase – rotary kiln – gas generator” showed it can obtain hydrogen-enriched water gas, along with the extraction of valuable components of primary raw material.