Introduction: Arthrocentesis has been used in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) to analyze components of the synovial fluid or as a therapeutic procedure associated or not with the admini- stration of a drug. The rabbit is one of the most commonly used animal species as a model for pathologies that affect the TMJ. The aim of this study was to propose a specific technique to perform arthrocentesis on the rabbit TMJ, emphasizing descriptions of reference points and measurements for a successful puncture without complications. Materials and methods: Fourteen adult rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were used. The project was approved by the Scientific Ethics Committee of the Universidad de La Frontera (File Nº083/2016). Results: The description of the technique was divided into three steps: 1) Location of the rabbit TMJ, 2) Positioning of the needles in the TMJ, and 3) Passage of fluid through the TMJ. Conclusions: This arthrocen- tesis technique could help to simplify the procedure and give the investigator a guide for joint washing and extraction of synovial fluid in the rabbit TMJ.
About 1600 joint fractures were measured in tillites of the Upper Hecla Hoek Formation on the southern shore of Bellsund. Measurements were collected in 12 areas between the Renardbreen and Tjörndalen. Ray diagrams and contour diagrams of joint fractures, and contour diagrams of joint fractures after rotation to pre-folding position were made for each area. The preliminary analysis of diagrams indicates 2 conjugated joint sets: ca. 60°—120° and 0°—30°. This joint system is probably older than folding and was originated under ENE—WSW to NE—SW stress.
The article presents issues related to the application of a moving horizon estimator for state variables reconstruction in an advanced control structure of a drive system with an elastic joint. Firstly, a short review of the commonly used methods for state estimation in presented. Then, a description of a state controller structure follows. The design methodology based on the poles-placement method is briefly described. Next, the mathematical algorithm of MHE is presented and some crucial features of MHE are analysed. Then, selected simulation and experimental results are shown and described. The investigation shows, among others, the influence of window length on the quality of state variables estimation.
The strength of conveyor belts splices made in mines rarely reaches full belt strength. It consists of a number of factors. The primary is the method of their construction and proper selection of ingredients. The significant impact has also has splice quality covering both keeping proper geometry matched to the belt construction and belts working conditions and adherence to the best practices in the field of technologies of their construction.Difficult conditions in underground mines and pressure on reducing conveyor downtime (avoiding production losses) is reflected by a drop in static and dynamic splices strength. This is confirmed by numerous studies of belt splices strength and fatigue life conducted in the Laboratory of Belt Conveying (LTT) within the framework of research and expert opinions commissioned by belt manufacturers and their users. The consequence of too insufficiently low belt splices strength is their low durability, decreasing reliability and, consequently, higher mining transportation costs. Belt splices are in fact the weakest link in the serial structure which form closed loops of interconnected belt sections working in series of conveyors transporting excavated material in the mine. The article presents the results of simulation analyzes analyses investigating how the increase of belt splices durability may contribute to the reduction of transportation costs in the underground mines.
A lithological profile and measurements of the orientation and spacings of natural discontinuity planes were carried out in the Górka-Mucharz sandstone excavation (Krosno Beds, Outer Carpathians, Poland). In addition, the density of the discontinuities was assessed by measuring their spacings using oriented digital photographs of the quarry walls. An orthophotomap was also used in assessing the orientation and density of fractures with the tools available in QGIS. It was shown that digital image analysis can be used as an alternative to direct field measurements, especially in situations where access to an outcrop is difficult. The distributions of spacings larger than 40 cm, obtained by direct measurements and based on digital images of the quarry, were comparable. As a consequence, both measurement techniques yielded similar values of the quantity of blocks (QB), which differed by less than 2% for the minimum block volume in the range 0.4-1.0 m3 and by 6-7% for larger blocks. On the other hand, measurements of discontinuity spacings that were taken on the basis of an orthophotomap can only serve to estimate the approximate maximum value of this parameter. However, the use of orthophotomaps gives a more explicit spatial pattern of the main vertical joint sets than direct measurements in the quarry. The analysis results also showed the following: (i) the presence of tectonic disturbances visible at the highest level of the deposit; (ii) higher density of set A fractures with planes deepening in the NE direction and a considerable reduction of the QB parameter, particularly in the peripheral NE and SW parts of the deposit; (iii) differences in the orientation of the discontinuity system between particular beds. The variable density of the discontinuities in the excavation is related to the presence of the faults that limit the Górka-Mucharz deposit.
Dynamic Mine disasters can be induced by the instability and failure of a composite structure of rock and coal layers during coal mining. Coal seam contains many native defects, severely affecting the instability and failure of the compound structure. In this study, the effects of coal persistent joint on the strength and failure characteristics of coal-rock composite samples were evaluated using PFC2D software. The results show that with the increase of included angle α between the loading direction and joint plane direction, the uniaxial compressive stress (UCS) and peak strain of composite samples first decrease and then gradually increase. The elastic moduli of composite samples do not change obviously with α. The peak strain at α of 45° is the lowest, and the UCS at α of 30° is the smallest. This is inconsistent with theoretical analysis of lowest UCS at α of 45°. This is because that the local stress concentration caused by the motion inconformity of composite samples may increase the average axial stress of upper wall in PFC2D software. Moreover, the coal persistent joint promotes the transformation from the unstable crack expansion to the macro-instability of composite samples, especially at α of 30° and 45°. The majority of failures for composite samples occur within the coal, and no obvious damage is observed in rock. Their failure modes are shear failure crossing or along the coal persistent joint. The failure of composite sample at α of 30° is a mixed failure, including the shear failure along the persistent joint in coal and tensile failure of rock induced by the propagation of coal persistent joint.
The main topic of this article is apes’ intentional behaviour. I consider the Michael Tomasello’s concept of intentionality. I outline how different levels of intentionality presented by Tomasello could be applied to apes’ behaviour. To do so I examine few experiments and observations (in natural conditions) of apes’ behaviour and try to apply Tomasello’s intentionality concepts. My main concern is the possibility of group and shared intentionality in ape communities, which could suggest that there is some kind of culture oriented behaviour in non-human animals.
The Carpathian Orava Basin is a tectonic structure filled with Neogene and Quaternary deposits superimposed on the collision zone between the ALCAPA and European plates. Tectonic features of the south-eastern margin of the Orava Basin and the adjoining part of the fore-arc Central Carpathian Palaeogene Basin were studied. Field observations of mesoscopic structures, analyses of digital elevation models and geological maps, supplemented with electrical resistivity tomography surveys were performed. Particular attention was paid to joint network analysis. The NE-SW-trending Krowiarki and Hruštinka-Biela Orava sinistral fault zones were recognized as key tectonic features that influenced the Orava Basin development. They constitute the north-eastern part of a larger Mur-Mürz-Žilina fault system that separates the Western Carpathians from the Eastern Alps. The interaction of these sinistral fault zones with the older tectonic structures of the collision zone caused the initiation and further development of the Orava Basin as a strike-slip-related basin. The Krowiarki Fault Zone subdivides areas with a different deformation pattern within the sediments of the Central Carpathian Palaeogene Basin and was active at least from the time of cessation of its sedimentation in the early Miocene. Comparison of structural data with the recent tectonic stress field, earthquake focal mechanisms and GPS measurements allows us to conclude that the Krowiarki Fault Zone shows a stable general pattern of tectonic activity for more than the last 20 myr and is presently still active.