The Stirling engine type alpha is composed of two cylinders (expansion space E and compression space C), regenerator that forms the space between the cylinders and the buffer space (under the pistons). Before the start-up and as a result of long-term operation, the average pressure in the working space (above the pistons) and in the buffer space is the same. However, in the initial phase of operation, the average pressure in the working space is different then the average pressure in the buffer space depending on the crankshaft starting position (starting angle). This, in turn, causes a large variation in the starting torque. An additional unfavorable factor caused by a large variation in the course of the indicated torque is the rotational speed variation and the formation of torsional vibrations in the drive system. After some time, depending on the quality of the engine piston sealing, the average pressure in the working and buffer space will equalize. The occurrence of the above-described phenomenon affects the selection of the starting electric motor, which can be significantly reduced, when the crankshaft starting position is optimized (the starting torque is several times greater than the average torque occurring in the generator operation mode). This paper presents the analysis of the impact of the crankshaft starting position on the course of the indicated torque and the resulting start-up energy. Starting the engine at an unfavorable position of the crankshaft may, in extreme cases, increase the starting torque even three times.
In this paper the current status of microplasma devices and systems made in the LTCC technology is presented. The microplasma characteristics and applications are described.We discuss the properties of the LTCC materials, that are necessary for reliable operation of the sources. This material is well known for its good reliability and durability in harsh conditions. Still, only a few examples of such microplasma sources are described. Some of them have been developed by the authors and successfully used for chemical analysis and synthesis.
The paper discusses the feasibility, effectiveness and validity of a gas turbine power plant, operated according to the Brayton comparative cycle in order to develop low-potential waste heat (160◦C) and convert it into electricity. Fourteen working fluids, mainly with organic origin have been examined. It can be concluded that low molecular weight working fluids allow to obtain higher power efficiency of Brayton cycle only if conversions without taking into account internal losses are considered. For the cycle that takes into account the compression conversion efficiency in the compressor and expansion in the gas turbine, the highest efficiency was obtained for the perfluoropentane working medium and other substances with relatively high molecular weight values. However, even for the cycle using internal heat recovery, the thermal efficiency of the Brayton cycle did not exceed 7%.The paper discusses the feasibility, effectiveness and validity of a gas turbine power plant, operated according to the Brayton comparative cycle in order to develop low-potential waste heat (160◦C) and convert it into electricity. Fourteen working fluids, mainly with organic origin have been examined. It can be concluded that low molecular weight working fluids allow to obtain higher power efficiency of Brayton cycle only if conversions without taking into account internal losses are considered. For the cycle that takes into account the compression conversion efficiency in the compressor and expansion in the gas turbine, the highest efficiency was obtained for the perfluoropentane working medium and other substances with relatively high molecular weight values. However, even for the cycle using internal heat recovery, the thermal efficiency of the Brayton cycle did not exceed 7%.
Filtering nonwovens produced with melt-blown technology are one of the most basic materials used in the construction of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) against harmful aerosols, including bio- and nanoaerosols. The improvement of their filtering properties can be achieved by the development of quasi-permanent electric charge on the fibres. Usually corona discharge method is utilized for this purpose. In the presented study, it was assumed that the low-temperature plasma treatment could be applied as an alternative method for the manufacturing of conventional electret nonwovens for the RPE construction. Low temperature plasma treatment of polypropylene nonwovens was carried out with various process gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen or air) in a wide range of process parameters (gas flow velocity, time of treatment and power supplied to the reactor electrodes). After the modification, nonwovens were evaluated in terms of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist. The stability of the modification results was tested after 12 months of storage and after conditioning at elevated temperature and relative humidity conditions. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and ATR-IR spectroscopy were used to assess changes in surface topography and chemical composition of the fibres. The modification of melt-blown nonwovens with nitrogen, oxygen and air plasma did not result in a satisfactory improvement of the filtration efficiency. In case of argon plasma treatment, up to 82% increase of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist was observed in relation to untreated samples. This effect was stable after 12 months of storage in normal conditions and after thermal conditioning in (70 ± 3)°C for 24 h. The use of low-temperature plasma treatment was proven to be a promising improvement direction of filtering properties of nonwovens used for the protection of respiratory tract against harmful aerosols.
The paper deals with the impact of co-firing biomass with coal in boilers on the dew point of the flue gas. Co-firing of biomass may have twofold implications on corrosion and fouling, which are the processes that determine the lowest acceptable flue gas outlet temperature and as a result, boiler efficiency. Both phenomena may be reduced by co-firing of usually low sulphur biomasses or enhanced due to increased moisture content of biomass leading to increased water dew point. The present study concerns the problem of low-temperature corrosion in utility boilers. The paper gives (in the form of diagrams and equations) a relationship between water dew point and moisture content of fuel mixture when co-firing coal and various biomasses. The regression analysis shows that despite significant differences in the characteristics of coals and these of additional fuels, which are planned for co-firing in large-scale power boilers, the water dew point can be described by a function given with the accuracy, which shall be satisfactory for engineering purposes. The discussion of the properties of biofuels indicates that the acid dew point surplus over the water dew point (Δtr = tr - twr) is not likely to exceed 10 K when co-firing biomass. The concluding remarks give recommendations for the appropriate operation of boilers in order to reduce risks associated with biomass co-combustion.
Exergy analysis of low temperature geothermal heat plant with compressor and absorption heat pump was carried out. In these two concepts heat pumps are using geothermal water at 19.5°C with spontaneous outflow 24 m3/h as a heat source. The research compares exergy efficiency and exergy destruction of considered systems and its components as well. For the purpose of analysis, the heating system was divided into five components: geothermal heat exchanger, heat pump, heat distribution, heat exchanger and electricity production and transportation. For considered systems the primary exergy consumption from renewable and non-renewable sources was estimated. The analysis was carried out for heat network temperature at 50/40°C, and the quality regulation was assumed. The results of exergy analysis of the system with electrical and absorption heat pump show that exergy destruction during the whole heating season is lower for the system with electrical heat pump. The exergy efficiencies of total system are 12.8% and 11.2% for the system with electrical heat pump and absorption heat pump, respectively.
The aim of the presented research was to test different carbon supports, such as graphene oxide (GO), graphene oxide modified with ammonia (N-GO), and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for catalysts used in a low-temperature fuel cell, specifically a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Modification of the carbon supports should lead to different catalytic activity in the fuel cell. Reduction of GO leads to partial removal of oxygen groups from GO, forming rGO. Modification of GO with ammonia results in an enrichment of GO structure with nitrogen. A thorough analysis of the used supports was carried out, using various analytical techniques, such as FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis. Palladium and platinum catalysts deposited on these supports were produced and used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Catalytic activity tests of the prepared catalysts were carried out in a home-made direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC). The tests showed that the enrichment of the GO structure with nitrogen caused an increase in the catalytic activity, especially for the palladium catalyst. However, reduction of GO resulted in catalysts with higher activity and the highest catalytic activity was demonstrated by Pt/rGO, because platinum is the most catalytically active metal for ORR. The obtained results may be significant for low-temperature fuel cell technology, because they show that a simple modification of a carbon support may lead to a significant increase of the catalyst activity. This could be useful especially in lowering the cost of fuel cells, which is an important factor, because thousands of fuel cells running on hydrogen are already in use in commercial vehicles, forklifts, and backup power units worldwide. Another method used for lowering the price of current fuel cells can involve developing new clean and cheap production methods of the fuel, i.e. hydrogen. One of them employs catalytic processes, where carbon materials can be also used as a support and it is necessary to know how they can influence catalytic activity.
Investigations on integration of optoelectronic components with LTCC (low temperature co-fired ceramics) microfluidic module are presented. Design, fabrication and characterization of the ceramic structure for optical absorbance is described as well. The geometry of the microfluidic channels has been designed according to results of the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) analysis. A fabricated LTCC-based microfluidic module consists of an U-shaped microchannel, two optical fibers and integrated light source (light emitting diode) and photodetector (light-to-voltage converter). Properties of the fabricated microfluidic system have been investigated experimentally. Several concentrations of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in water were used for absorbance/transmittance measurements. The test has shown a linear detection range for various concentrations of heavy metal ions in distilled water. The fabricated microfluidic structure is found to be a very useful system in chemical analysis.
In this paper small punch test (SPT) which is one of miniaturized samples technique, was employed to characterize the mechanical properties of carbon steel P110. The tests were carried out in the range of –175°C to RT. Results obtained for SPT were compared to those calculated for tensile and Charpy impact test. Based on tensile and SPT parameters numerical model was prepared. 8 mm in diameter and 0.8 mm in height (t) discs with and without notch were employed in this research. The specimens had different depth notch (a) in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 mm. It was estimated that α factor for comparison of Tsp and DBTT for carbon steel P110 is 0.55 and the linear relation is DBTT = 0.55TSPT. The numerical model fit with force – deflection curve of SPT. If the factor of notch depth and samples thickness is higher than 0.3 the fracture mode is transformed from ductile to brittle at –150°C.
In this study a two-step short wet etching was implemented for the black silicon formation. The proposed structure consists of two steps. The first step: wet acidic etched pits-like morphology with a quite new solution of lowering the texturization temperature and second step: wires structure obtained by a metal assisted etching (MAE). The temperature of the process was chosen due to surface development control and surface defects limitation during texturing process. This allowed to maintain better minority carrier lifetime compared to etching in ambient temperature. On the top of the acidic texture the wires were formed with optimized height of 350 nm. The effective reflectance of presented black silicon structure in the wavelength range of 300-1100 nm was equal to 3.65%.
SI engines are highly susceptible to excess emissions when started at low ambient temperatures. This phenomenon has multiple air quality and climate forcing implications. Direct injection petrol engines feature a markedly different fuelling strategy, and so their emissions behaviour is somewhat different from indirect injection petrol engines. The excess emissions of direct injection engines at low ambient temperatures should also differ. Additionally, the direct injection fuel delivery process leads to the formation of PM, and DISI engines should show greater PM emissions at low ambient temperatures. This study reports on laboratory experiments quantifying excess emissions of gaseous and solid pollutants over a legislative driving cycle following cold start at a low ambient temperature for both engine types. Over the legislative cycle for testing at -7°C (the UDC), emissions of HC, CO, NOx and CO2 were higher when tested at -7°C than at 24°C. Massive increases in emissions of HC and CO were observed, together with more modest increases in NOx and CO2 emissions. Results from the entire driving cycle showed excess emissions in both phases (though they were much larger for the UDC). The DISI vehicle showed lower increases in fuel consumption than the port injected vehicles, but greater increases in emission of HC and CO. DISI particle number emissions increased by around 50%; DISI particle mass by over 600%. The observed emissions deteriorations varied somewhat by engine type and from vehicle to vehicle. Excesses were greatest following start-up, but persisted, even after several hundred seconds’ driving. The temperature of the intake air appeared to have a limited but signiﬁcant effect on emissions after the engine has been running for some time. All vehicles tested here comfortably met the relevant EU limits, providing further evidence that these limits are no longer challenging and need updating.