A mine cannot function without monitoring systems: environmental, basic mining machinery and equipment. The exploitation of ore in the mine depends heavily on properly functioning machines and mining equipment, and acceptable for the miner technical environmental conditions occurring in underground excavations. The monitoring systems of the technical environment in underground mines are primarily telemetry and gasometry systems. The first part of the article shows the typical structure of gasometry systems operating in the Polish underground mines. The existing provisions include the so-called security systems of the mining plant. The article presents a quantitative summary of the telephone exchange types and count of main telecommunication lines operating in these systems. Monitoring systems of machines and mining equipment are an essential element of the effec-tive management of the mine, because they affect the safe operation and increase time of effi-ciency equipment. The second part of the article shows selected monitoring systems of mining machinery and equipment currently used in the dispatcher rooms of mines. Attention was paid to the monitoring systems, which are only software tools as well as those in which additionally use dedicated IT solutions for these systems, hardware and measuring tools. The table shows the types of monitoring systems and technological configurations used in underground mines, preferred for them.
In the breeding season 1988/89, within the region of SSSI No. 8, nesting of 12 species of birds was observed. The highest number of nests — 24430 — belonged to three species of pygoscelid penguins; 77.1% were the Adelie penguin. Relatively high fluctuations in the number of penguins in some rookeries in particular breeding seasons were confirmed. During regular countings of mammals' in 1988 the presence of 5 species of Pinnipedia was noted, of which the southern elephant seal was most numerous in the summer season, whereas crabeater seal — in winter. In the region of SSSI No. 8, breeding of southern elephant seal and Weddell seal was observed. Fluctuations in the number of seals in this region in the period 1977—1988 were insignificant.
In 1989/90, in the region of SSSI 8 situated on King George Island 21 bird species were observed, 12 species were breeding. Dominants were 3 Pygoscelis species (19229 pairs). Five species of pinnipedians were noticed. Mirounga leonina was most abundant in January (623 individuals), Arctocephalus gazella — in February and March (890 individuals), Hydrurga leptonyx in October (39 individuals). The abundance of Leptonychotes weddelli was low and rather stable. As a result of mild winter during the study period such birds as Sterna vittata and Pygoscelis adeliae stayed near their breeding places. The scarcity of Lobodon carcinophagus was probably also a result of this mild winter.
Since the 1970s, the Legnica-Głogów Copper District has an area of intensive mining of copper. Mining activities resulted in the appearance of induced seismic activity. This situation caused the necessity of setting an underground seismological network. In the mid-1990s, due to the great damage of objects on the surface caused by the ground vibrations due to mining tremors, a surface strong motion seismic network equipped with accelerometers was created. They monitor the vibration levels of both the land and the buildings themselves. This contributed to a better knowledge of the nature of ground vibration and the resistance of objects. In recent years, anthropogenic threats, which include seismicity induced by mining activities, are arousing more and more interest. To be able to develop test methods for seismic source physics, the analysis of the impact of vibrations on the surface and the seismic hazard, network measurement should also be developed and modernized. In the years 2014–2015, the IS-EPOS “Digital research space of induced seismicity for EPOS purposes” project, extended the LUMINEOS modern seismological network presently consisting of 15 seismometers and 10 accelerometers, with the possibility of additional further expansion. The data obtained from the LUMINEOS network complements the existing underground mining network and surface strong motion network. This allows for an advanced seismic analysis.
The paper presents a construction of a system for measurements of pH, concentration of calcium ions and concentration of heavy metal ions in water. Three fiber optic sensors in flow configuration were designed and tested. The system is fully automatic and can be used for water quality monitoring.
The paper presents the results of seven-year survey of Antarctic seals along the western shore of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. Five species were monitored during seven of the eight years, between 1988-95, excluding 1993. Numbers of elephant seals and Antarctic fur seals showed strong annual cycles, fur seals with two seasonal peaks. These of the other three species were more irregular. Fewer Weddell seals were seen in 1994 and 1995 then during the period 1988-92; with this exception, no overall trend in numbers was apparent during the period 1988-95.
The assessment of a rock’s behaviour around excavations and the effectiveness of its reinforcement in underground ore mines is dependent on the performance of the rock-bolt and rock-mass interaction, which can be estimated on the basis of appropriately designed measurements. Based on the background of various measurements solutions described in the literature, concerning rock bolt monitoring methods, the authors proposed a new, original device for mass measurements in mine conditions. After examining the advantages and disadvantages of existing constructions, the article presents the essence, principle of operation and method of measuring anchor load in an underground excavation with the a instrument, indicator WK-2/8. The prototype has been carefully researched and successfully tested in a full-scale laboratory environment. This instrument, also referred to as a load indicator or force pad, does not require electrical power and allows for relatively accurate (with a resolution of 10-14kN, up to about 90kN loading capacity) and a remote reading of the axle loading of the anchor (AGH patent) by any person present in the specified area. The device can be installed in mining excavations under loading conditions. The relatively low cost of a measuring instrument, practically used as an additional washer, as well as an easy assembly method, makes it universally applicable in mines where anchoring is used as a means of strengthening the rock.
Based on the publications regarding new or recent measurement systems for the tokamak plasma experiments, it can be found that the monitoring and quality validation of input signals for the computation stage is done in different, often simple, ways. In the paper is described the unique approach to implement the novel evaluation and data quality monitoring (EDQM) model for use in various measurement systems. The adaptation of the model is made for the GEM-based soft X-ray measurement system FPGA-based. The EDQM elements has been connected to the base firmware using PCI-E DMA real-time data streaming with minimal modification. As additional storage, on-board DDR3 memory has been used. Description of implemented elements is provided, along with designed data processing tools and advanced simulation environment based on Questa software.
This paper describes the concept of controlling the advancement speed of the shearer, the objective of which is to eliminate switching the devices off to the devices in the longwall and in the adjacent galleries. This is connected with the threshold limit value of 2% for the methane concentration in the air stream flowing out from the longwall heading, or 1% methane in the air flowing to the longwall. Equations were formulated which represent the emission of methane from the mined body of coal in the longwall and from the winnings on the conveyors in order to develop the numerical procedures enabling a computer simulation of the mining process with a longwall shearer and haulage of the winnings. The distribution model of air, methane and firedamp, and the model of the goaf and a methanometry method which already exist in the Ventgraph-Plus programme, and the model of the methane emission from the mined longwall body of coal, together with the model of the methane emission from the winnings on conveyors and the model of the logic circuit to calculate the required advancement speed of the shearer together all form a set that enables simulations of the control used for a longwall shearer in the mining process. This simulation provides a means for making a comparison of the output of the mining in the case of work using a control system for the speed advancement of the shearer and the mining performance without this circuit in a situation when switching the devices off occurs as a consequence of exceeding the 2% threshold limit value of the methane concentration. The algorithm to control a shearer developed for a computer simulation considers a simpler case, where the logic circuit only employs the methane concentration signal from a methane detector situated in the longwall gallery close to the longwall outlet.
Balanced distribution of air in coal-fired boiler is one of the most important factors in the combustion process and is strongly connected to the overall system efficiency. Reliable and continuous information about combustion airﬂow and fuel rate is essential for achieving optimal stoichiometric ratio as well as efficient and safe operation of a boiler. Imbalances in air distribution result in reduced boiler efficiency, increased gas pollutant emission and operating problems, such as corrosion, slagging or fouling. Monitoring of air ﬂow trends in boiler is an effective method for further analysis and can help to appoint important dependences and start optimization actions. Accurate real-time monitoring of the air distribution in boiler can bring economical, environmental and operational benefits. The paper presents a novel concept for online monitoring system of air distribution in coal-ﬁred boiler based on real-time numerical calculations. The proposed mathematical model allows for identification of mass ﬂow rates of secondary air to individual burners and to overﬁre air (OFA) nozzles. Numerical models of air and flue gas system were developed using software for power plant simulation. The correctness of the developed model was verified and validated with the reference measurement values. The presented numerical model for real-time monitoring of air distribution is capable of giving continuous determination of the complete air flows based on available digital communication system (DCS) data.
The utilization of mining waste is an important problem in Poland and Ukraine. The article presents one of the variants of waste mining in the quarry in Płaza. An analysis of the resource base of the deposit and their location at the area of Płaza deposit is carried out. The Płaza deposit is located in the western part of the Małopolskie province, in the entire Chrzanów commune. The Płaza deposit is constructed of Middle Triassic carbonates represented by the limestone-dolomite Olkusz Formation and the limestone-marlized Gogolin Formation. The deposit series lies on the dolomites of Röt age (Lower Triassic – Olenekian). The most valuable raw material was the pure limestone from the lower part of the Olkusz Formation, now almost completely exploited. The article presents the current state of mineable reserves of the deposit and their quality (chemical and physical characteristics). Moreover the article shows potential consumers of raw material and the possibility of extending the life of the mine work. According to the results of the environmental monitoring the ground and hydrogeological conditions were evaluated, the results of which allowed a more efficient use of the existing quarry area for mining waste disposal to be proposed. The paper presents a conceptual waste transport scheme, planned distribution and compaction of wastes belonging to the first, second and third group and then a surface reclamation. In view of the absence of similar decisions analogs, the consideration of the open-pit as a one solid geomechanical system functioning under the conditions of uncertainty is suggested. In order to examine the dynamics of the waste compaction process, some measures are foreseen to constantly observe their subsidence. The proposed measures for the synchronous disposal of mining waste in the worked-out area of the open-pit and the simultaneous mining operation in the quarry will allow the life cycle of the open-pit to be prolonged for 15–20 years.
This paper presents mathematical models enabling the calculation of the distribution and patterns of methane inflow to the air stream in a longwall seam being exploited and spoil on a longwall conveyor, taking into account the variability of shearer and conveyor operation and simulation results of the mining team using the Ventgraph-Plus software. In the research, an experiment was employed to observe changes in air parameters, in particular air velocity and methane concentration in the Cw-4 longwall area in seam 364/2 at KWK Budryk, during different phases of shearer operation in the area of the mining wall in methane hazard conditions. Presented is the method of data recording during the experiment which included records from the mine’s system for automatic gasometry, records from a wireless system of eight methane sensors installed in the end part of the longwall and additionally from nine methane anemometers located across the longwall on a grid. Synchronous data records obtained from these three independent sources were compared against the recording the operating condition of the shearer and haulage machines at the longwall in various phases of their operation (cleaning, cutting). The results of the multipoint system measurements made it possible to determine the volume of air and methane flow across the longwall working, and, consequently, to calculate the correction coefficients for determining the volume of air and methane from measurements of local air velocity and methane concentration. An attempt was made to determine the methane inflow from a unit of the longwall body area and the unit of spoil length on conveyors depending on the mining rate. The Cw-4 longwall ventilation was simulated using the data measured and calculated from measurements and the simulation results were discussed.
Biodiversity conservation cannot operate in Central Eastern European countries without a well-established monitoring system, that is dependent on the citizen scientists input. Here we analyse, based on a Polish case: (1) The contribution of NGOs to the national nature monitoring scheme and their collaboration with governmental and scientific institutions and (2) the motivation of citizen scientists to volunteer for NGOs’ monitoring activities. The study comprises a focus group interview, 30 in-depth interviews with coordinators, citizen scientists, experts and a 23 days long participant observation of a model NGO. We have assessed the monitoring input of NGOs as being a contributory factor influencing the biodiversity conservation effectiveness. The cooperation between governmental, scientific institutions and NGOs exists, but is dependent on national funding. Although NGOs highlight the lack of coherence in monitoring methodology, they are willing to join the biodiversity monitoring, especially at the European Ecological Network – Natura 2000 sites. On the other hand the trust concerning cooperation with citizen scientists is limited. However, despite this, they still turned out to be trustworthy partners. The most effective way to maintain cooperation with citizen scientists is to create a bond in a group and to provide them with the opportunity to develop their passion for nature. Our findings have shed light on the growing importance of citizen scientists in biodiversity governance, providing recommendations for development of the effective monitoring schemes based on the volunteer work of citizen scientists.
The major downside of blasting works is blast vibrations. Extensive research has been done on the subject and many predictors, estimating Peak Particle Velocity (PPV), were published till date. However, they are either site specific or global (unified model regardless of geology) and can give more of a guideline than exact data to use. Moreover, the model itself among other factors highly depends on positioning of vibration monitoring instruments. When fitting of experimental data with best fit curve and 95% confidence line, the equation is valid only for the scaled distance (SD) range used for fitting. Extrapolation outside of this range gives erroneous results. Therefore, using the specific prediction model, to predetermine optimal positioning of vibration monitoring instruments has been verified to be crucial. The results show that vibration monitoring instruments positioned at a predetermined distance from the source of the blast give more reliable data for further calculations than those positioned outside of a calculated range. This paper gives recommendation for vibration monitoring instruments positioning during test blast on any new site, to optimize charge weight per delay for future blasting works without increasing possibility of damaging surrounding structures.
The condition monitoring techniques like acoustic emission, vibration analysis, and infrared thermography, used for the failure diagnosis of bearings, require longer processing time, as they have to perform acoustical measurement followed by signal processing and further analysis using special software. However, for any bearing, its period of usage can be easily determined within an hour, by measuring the bearing sound, using sound level meter (SLM). In this paper the acoustical analysis of the spindle bearing of a radial drilling machine was performed using SLM, by measuring the sound pressure level of the bearing in decibels, for different frequencies, while muting all the other noises. Then using an experimental set up, two database readings were taken, one for new bearing and the other for completely damaged bearing, both are SKF6207, which itself is the spindle bearing. From these three sets of sound pressure level readings, the period of usage of the spindle bearing, was calculated using an interpolation equation, by substituting the life of the bearing from the manufacturer’s catalogue. Therefore, for any machine with a SKF6207 bearing, its usage time can be estimated using the database readings and one measurement on that machine, all with the same speed.
The paper analyzes the monthly day equivalent levels, Lday (06–22 h) and night equivalent levels, Lnight (22–06 h) values observed in year 2015 and 2016 for the 70 locations whereby continuous noise monitoring is conducted under the National Ambient Noise Monitoring Network (NANMN). The study exclusively analyzes the ambient noise data acquired for 25 locations in commercial zone, 12 in industrial, 16 in residential and 17 in silence zones. The analysis of (Lday–Lnight) for 70 locations under observations reveals that 10 dB night time adjustment in day-night average sound level descriptor is not appropriate in such a scenario and as such it is recommended to use day-night average sound level and day-eveningnight average sound level descriptors without any 10 dB night time adjustment or 5 dB evening time adjustments. The analysis and conclusions of the present study shall be very useful for developing single value noise descriptor correlating the noise annoyance and health effects in Indian perspectives.