This paper deals with real-time (RT) simulators applied in power electronic applications and implemented in a real inverter. The process of preparing and starting up an active rectifier prototype (with an active filter function), using the real-time OPAL RT simulator is given. The control system of the converter and the results of simulation using the Matlab/Simulink suite are discussed.
Thermo-chemical treatments are known to increase the fatigue life of industrial parts. Due to the imprecise consideration of residual stresses in predicting the durability of components subjected to cyclic loading and their effect on the fatigue life, the authors developed a numerical model combining the influence of residual stresses with stresses caused by bending. The authors performed the numerical simulation with the use of Finite Element Method to analyse material behaviour during cyclic loading. The residual stress state developed during nitriding was introduced onto cross-section of the numerical specimen. The goal of this work was better understanding of the real conditions of the nitride steel fatigue processes and improving the knowledge about numerical predicting of the fatigue life for parts with residual stresses. The results of simulation were compared with plane bending fatigue tests. The presented method indicates the possibility of increasing the accuracy of the fatigue analysis of elements after surface treatment, increasing its certainty and the ability to perform better optimization of service life.
Lower Carboniferous limestone has been extracted in the “Czatkowice” open-pit hill-slope quarry in southern Poland since 1947, for the needs of metallurgical and building industries, as well as farming. We can distinguish two aquifers in the Czatkowice area: the Quaternary porous aquifer and the Carboniferous fissure-porous one. Two vertical zones representing different hydrodynamic characteristics can be indentified in the Carboniferous formations. One is a weathering zone and the other one the zone of fissures and interbedding planes. Groundwater inflows into the quarry workings have been observed at the lowest mining level (+315 m above the sea level (asl)) for over 30 years. This study concerns two hypotheses of the sources of such inflows originating either from (a) the aeration zone or from (b) the saturation zone. Inflows into the quarry combine into one stream flowing gravitationally to the doline under the pile in the western part of the quarry. This situation does not cause a dewatering need. Extending eastward mining and lowering of the exploitation level lead to increased inflows.
To solve the problem of large deformation soft rock roadway with complicated stress condition in Baluba copper mine, the characteristics of roadway deformation and failure modes are analyzed deeply on the basis of geological survey. Combined with the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, the new reinforcement technology with floor mudsill and grouting anchor cable is proposed. Moreover, the three dimension numerical simulation model is established by the software FLAC-3D, the support parameter is optimized by it. The results show that the optical array pitch of the U-steel shelf arch is 0.8 m, and the optical array pitch of the grouting anchor cable is 2.4 m. At last, the field experiments are done all over the soft rock roadway. Engineering practice shows that the deformation of soft rock roadway in Baluba copper mine is effectively controlled by adopting the new reinforcement technology, which can provide certain references for similar engineering.
In the process of coal extraction, a fractured zone is developed in the overburden above the goaf. If the fractured zone is connected with an aquifer, then water inrush may occur. Hence, research and analysis of the height of overburden fractured zone (HOFZ) are of considerable significance. This study focuses on the HOFZ determination in deep coal mining. First, general deformation failure characteristics of overburden were discussed. Second, a new method, numerical simulation by orthogonal design(NSOD), have been proposed to determinate the HOFZ in deep coal mining. Third, the validity of NSOD is verified in the practical application, compared with empiric al formula in Chinese Regulations and in-situ test. These three methods were applied to determine the HOFZ of working face No. 111303 in No. 5 coal mine. The pre dicted HOFZ of NSOD is found to be similar to the result of the in-situ test (8.9% relative error), whereas the HOFZ calculated by the empirical formula has extremely large error (25.7% relative error). Results show that the NSOD can reliably predict the HOFZ in deep coal mining and reduce time and expenses required for in-situ test.
The main work of this paper focuses on the simulation of binary alloy solidification using the phase field model and adaptive octree grids. Ni-Cu binary alloy is used as an example in this paper to do research on the numerical simulation of isothermal solidification of binary alloy. Firstly, the WBM model, numerical issues and adaptive octree grids have been explained. Secondary, the numerical simulation results of three dimensional morphology of the equiaxed grain and concentration variations are given, taking the efficiency advantage of the adaptive octree grids. The microsegregation of binary alloy has been analysed emphatically. Then, numerical simulation results of the influence of thermo-physical parameters on the growth of the equiaxed grain are also given. At last, a simulation experiment of large scale and long-time has been carried out. It is found that increases of initial temperature and initial concentration will make grain grow along certain directions and adaptive octree grids can effectively be used in simulations of microstructure.
Cu–4.7 wt. % Sn alloy wire with Ø10 mm was prepared by two-phase zone continuous casting technology, and the temperature field, heat and fluid flow were investigated by the numerical simulated method. As the melting temperature, mold temperature, continuous casting speed and cooling water temperature is 1200 °C, 1040 °C, 20 mm/min and 18 °C, respectively, the alloy temperature in the mold is in the range of 720 °C–1081 °C, and the solid/liquid interface is in the mold. In the center of the mold, the heat flow direction is vertically downward. At the upper wall of the mold, the heat flow direction is obliquely downward and deflects toward the mold, and at the lower wall of the mold, the heat flow deflects toward the alloy. There is a complex circular flow in the mold. Liquid alloy flows downward along the wall of the mold and flows upward in the center.
In order to predict the distribution of shrinkage porosity in steel ingot efficiently and accurately, a criterion R√L and a method to obtain its threshold value were proposed. The criterion R√L was derived based on the solidification characteristics of steel ingot and pressure gradient in the mushy zone, in which the physical properties, the thermal parameters, the structure of the mushy zone and the secondary dendrite arm spacing were all taken into consideration. The threshold value of the criterion R√L was obtained with combination of numerical simulation of ingot solidification and total solidification shrinkage rate. Prediction of the shrinkage porosity in a 5.5 ton ingot of 2Cr13 steel with criterion R√L>0.21 m･℃1/2･s -3/2 agreed well with the results of experimental sectioning. Based on this criterion, optimization of the ingot was carried out by decreasing the height-to-diameter ratio and increasing the taper, which successfully eliminated the centreline porosity and further proved the applicability of this criterion.
In order to optimize the stope structure parameters in broken rock conditions, a novel method for the optimization of stope structure parameters is described. The method is based on the field investigation, laboratory tests and numerical simulation. The grey relational analysis (GRA) is applied to the optimization of the stope structure parameters in broken rock conditions with multiple performance characteristics. The influencing factors include stope height, pillar diameter, pillar spacing and pillar array pitch, the performance characteristics include maximum tensile strength, maximum compressive strength and ore recovery rate. The setting of influencing factors is accomplished using the four factors four levels Taguchi experiment design method, and 16 experiments are done by numerical simulation. Analysis of the grey relational grade indicates the first effect value of 0.219 is the pillar array pitch. In addition, the optimal stope structure parameters are as follows: the height of the stope is 3.5 m, the pillar diameter is 3.5 m, the pillar spacing is 3 m and the pillar array pitch is 5 m. In-situ measurement shows that all of the pillars can basically remain stable, ore recovery rate can be ensured to be more than 82%. This study indicates that the GRA method can efficiently applied to the optimization of stope structure parameters.