Insufficient due planning policy in Poland is subject to widespread and justified criticism. This applies to all levels of spatial management. Legal instruments governing spatial planning in Poland are passive - setting out only the legal framework corresponding to a particular area. They regulate what might be developed within its boundaries, however, they do not specify how it is to be accomplished. Therefore, there is a need to develop an integrated spatial development planning, in which also investors and/or stakeholders would be involved. Apart from answering to the question of what is going to be developed, it will also provide a very comprehensive and flexible implementation strategy having regard to different timelines and local amenities (facilities). This paper also brings an example showing how the spatial planning strategy was conducted for the development of the "Fort Bema" housing estates in the Warsaw district of Bemowo. It highlights the relevance of the planning phase for the subsequent in-use (operating) phase.
Spatial Disorder vs. Data Collection on Spatial Planning in Poland. The article deals with the issue of spatial disorder as a consequence of lack of information about spatial planning in local government administration units. An efficient monitoring system of spatial planning on the local level is indispensable for the effective implementation of public policies, development strategies and operational programmes. Lack of full knowledge of land use leads to irrational and unsustainable use of resources in municipalities. The activities of public statistics in the field of the quality of information on spatial management concern the quality and methods of obtaining data, while adjusting the information available to the needs of authorities responsible for spatial planning at all levels.
Socio-Economic Effects of the Spatial Chaos for the Settlement Systems and Functional Land Use Structure. The aim of the study is an attempt to estimate, on the basis of literature and own analyzes, how costs are related to spatial chaos, i.e. mainly dispersion of settlement. Mainly residential (housing) settlement was addressed, which contributes the most to the defective structure of the entire settlement. In particular, the analysis uses several concentration indicators and graphical methods, including the so-called minimal spanning tree (MST). Analyzes have shown that costs can amount to several dozen billion zlotys a year, resulting due to the lack of utilities, unsatisfactory condition of public infrastructure, morphological and functional chaos, excessive location of buildings in agricultural areas, oversupply of investment land with low location potential and as a result of low economic efficiency and effectiveness of settlement.
The article refers to the urban sprawl in Poland. Its objectives are: (1) analysis of relations between negative eff ects, (2) presentation negative effects on transport and energy consumption and on spatial order, (3) analysis of ways of counteracting negative processes including conditions (especially restrictions) on the use of this ways and their effectiveness. The methods used were: observation, literature analysis and logical analysis. Driving forces are heading towards further suburbanization, stopping of which is considered impossible. Orientation of the processes more closely to spatial order is very difficult. There are proper and legal solutions for this, but there are barriers to their use, such as: the lack of awareness and motivation of local authorities and the political conditions that discourage more restrictive regulation.
The article presents basic changes introduced in the first edition of the governmental Urban Planning and Building Code. The changes regard spatial development, especially planning and permit documents, and competences of the governmental bodies in accepting, legislating and issuing such documents. In this respect, the article points out important regulations for the mining industry, in particular for deposit protection and the initiation of mining projects. In certain cases, critical opinions of some of the governmental institutions are mentioned. In a new document regarding the “Spatial Development Study of a Community”, the draft of the Code orders a division of the community into functional zones. Therefore a mining and extractive industry could be delimited as a functional zone. The Code also specifies that while delimiting a new urbanization area, the documented mining deposits areas should be avoided. In relation to the local spatial plan, the Code establishes the following: in documented strategic mining deposit zones the initiation of non-public purpose investments can only be carried out according to the urban spatial plan. This project also orders that only the local spatial plan can allow for the localization of “establishments that carry a risk of serious industrial breakdown” and “investments that can seriously impact the environment”. The Code also introduces another innovation: the possibility of issuing the local spatial plan with an integrated evaluation on the environmental impact. The “investment permits” are intended to replace both the previous building permits and previous decisions on the conditions of development of the areas not covered in the local spatial plans. The investment permits referring to mining establishments will be issued by the mining administration authorities. The main adverse change for mining is that the exploration of mining deposits owned by the State Treasury loses its previous status of public purposes. The article also indicates that some of the described regulations might be changed during the further legislation process.
The main purpose of this article is to present facts related to the history of Port Praski located on the right bank of the Vistula river in Warsaw, which is currently being built. The subject of the consideration is the area and development of the former Port Praski, which project and the fi rst works began after the First World War. It’s spatial and functional connections with the downtown area and surroundings are also key issue. The article presents plans, concepts, projects and investments, furthermore theirs level of implementation. Signifi cant eff ort was made to answer the research questions concerning social expectations regarding the function and the direction of Port Praski development. In the final part of the article was made a comparison of existing revitalization works in Port Praski with HafenCity – the district of Hamburg, where the revitalization project has been already implemented for 20 years. However, comparative analysis revealed several signifi cant differences, allowed to conclude that Polish model of revitalization is only a partially identical with the approach applied in Western Europe.
The analysis of provisions of Local Spatial Management Plans and selected cases of practical implementation of such provisions showed, that the provisions of spatial law practically stay without any relation to rules of urban composition and spatial order. The research was limited to analysis of urban composition, without considering all the conditions for planning process and its results. The town planning is treated in this article as planned space resulted from clear urban concept based on general urban composition rules. Town planning does not refer in this case to spatial chaos which can be a result of implementation of Local Spatial Management Plan.
Transport and Space in Socio-Economic Life. This paper deals with key issues arising when transport is confronted with chaotic socio-economic environments. Nowadays especially urbanised areas are facing some crucial issues concerning urban planning under conditions of spatial chaos. Transport, having an important role in connecting the space of social and economic life, is a mean to reduce spatial chaos but is also subjected to the impacts chaotic socio-economic forces have. Within this research the interrelation between transport and disordered environment in which transport has to operate is addressed in regard to: transport infrastructure investment planning, traffic congestion management, transport accessibility, accidents and transport safety and impact of transport on the environment. It is the expected role of transport system to reduce chaos, especially in urban areas. But to what degree transport is actually fulfilling this task? In fact in many places badly organized transport might add to the problem instead of solving it. The effect the chaotic spatial organisation has on transport accessibility influences daily economic and social activity of people. Specifically there are numerous cost drivers activated by chaotic transport development resulting mainly in higher costs of moving people and goods, negative impact on value of time in transport processes, direct costs involved like more intensive fuel and material consumption or heightened depreciation of vehicles. Transport could be also perceived as a source of many significant external effects for society and environment, which entails valid environmental costs. The list of transport external effects is relatively long. This is due to the fact that transport is also one of the most important sectors of the modern industrialized economy and modern society. Poorly planned transport system adds to the already chaotic socio-economic setup. This is especially visible in cities where different layers of chaos can interfere and create dangerous synergies. Due to the lack of adequate space management, and this is the case in the discussed spatial chaos, environmental and social externalities are growing, which leads to higher social costs, which every citizen pays for in the final bill. On the other hand well planned transport system should help to curb chaotic socio-economic environment. Thus the key problem analysed in this paper is whether and how transport system could be an ordering force planned and enforced in effective way in order to reduce chaos created by other activities or rather an additional negative effect within the whole spectrum of chaos drivers.
Expenditures Related to Technical Infrastructure. The aim of the study is to answer to the question what is the economic (financial) scale of expenditure and local investments related to the technical infrastructure and to what extent the investment processes are correlated with the planning coverage. The study is based on data used in the annual reports of the Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences on the state of planning work in communes. A detailed analysis of municipal budget expenditures was carried out, demonstrating large diversity of water and sewerage services, road construction and renovation, investment expenditures, etc. The research showed that a significant part of the investment is located outside local plans based on the decision on building conditions. This creates a serious risk of irrationality of spatial management and leads to increase of infrastructure service costs.
The basic resource of urban planning is space, which as a result of transformation has a direct impact on socio-economic development and quality of life. The author’s purpose was to define planning solutions for urban spatial policy, which can raise the quality of living, especially in the residential environment. In connection with the above, the literature of the subject was analysed and examples of good spatial policy and urban development in the living environment were shown. Particular attention was paid to the planning solutions in Paris and Vienna, as well as to the examples of the new living environment creation in some Scandinavian cities.
Marine governance is an essential way of achieving the objectives of sustainable development. It ought to be understood as the process of planning, as well as decision-making and management at the national and regional levels taking into account the global ocean as an ecological unity. The process of decision-making is closely interrelated with the regional and transnational cross-border cooperation. The adoption of the EU Directive establishing a framework for maritime spatial planning (hereinafter: MSP Directive) plays an important role in developing of marine spatial planning in Europe by promoting MSP instruments. MSP Directive requires all coastal EU Member States to prepare cross-sectoral maritime spatial plans by 2021. The development of spatial plans for Polish marine areas was started in 2013. The MSP legal bases are included in the Marine Areas of the Republic of Poland and Maritime Administration Act of 1991 amended in 2015 and its implementing regulations.
A village on the outskirts of a city. An analysis and assessment of the west part of Inowrocław for the purposes of spatial planning, The article presents results of a research concerning the landscape of the west part of Uzdrowisko Inowrocław which is characterized by a rural origin and physiognomy, despite being located in the city. The goal of the paper was to identify the resources of that landscape, determine the pace of its transformation, its value, and indicate the possible directions of development. The research consisted in a landscape diagnosis concerning physiognomy aspects in various dimensions (composition, panoramic, and planning), taking advantage of methods used in landscape architecture and urban design. The execution allowed to formulate guidelines concerning the protection and formation of the researched landscape. The goal was also to determine the usefulness of the used model of research proceedings in practice, including indicating the possibilities of implementing the identified results in spatial planning on a local scale. The work has a case study character which conclusions may be helpful in analyzing similar areas and their landscapes.
Fortyfication Objects of Prussian Ring Fortresses in Poznań and Wrocław (from XIX–XX Cent.) in Current Spatial Planning Documents – Functioning, Protection, Landscape Shaping, Fortifications are valuable elements of cultural heritage of many Polish cities. Unfortunately, in many cases they are not properly used and protected, although some of them have the status of historical monuments. Potentially, tools for strengthening protection of fortifications are provided by spatial planning system. The research was based on detailed analysis of the Study of the Conditions and Directions of the Spatial Management of a Communes and Local Spatial Management Plans, including the area of ring fortresses in Poznań and Wrocław. In the Study of the Conditions and Directions of the Spatial Management of a Commune of both cities one can find references to the location and use of ring fortifications. The area of fortification objects in Poznan is covered by 9 Local Spatial Management Plans, 5 further plans covering the fortifications are in preparation. The area of ring fortress in Wroclaw were covered by 9 Local Spatial Management Plans. The results of the analysis of the spatial planning documents show that the tools used to protect the fortifications offered by the spatial planning system are not fully exploited. The context and landscape values of the fortifications are ignored in most of the plans. Also one can find in spatial planning documents the lack of attempts to link fortress greenery to the greenery system, and, in the case of Wroclaw, the lack of describing fortification greenery as a valuable asset. In most cases, principals of the fortifications objects protection are not enough detailed.
State Urban Policy – concept, Institutional scope and structure in integrative management of the development. The management of space, as a common good, closely linked with economic and social development in Poland – meets a number of barriers. One of the major barriers is flawed and inefficient system of spatial planning and the lack of explicit national urban policy. The causes of this situation are manifold and complex. There is a week understanding that spatial planning has regulatory function and that is a main measure of intervention in inefficient – by its nature – market mechanism of real estate development and location of new construction objects. The existing in Poland since 2015 formal document under the title “National City Policy” is in fact the part of cohesion policy. It formulates only very soft policy recommendations concerning spatial development which are identified in different cities and their functional areas, whereas financial measures go separately through sectoral programs. In the article author consider the future place of national urban policy in integrative system of development policy which combine economic, social and build environmental dimensions. Than he analyzes the relationship between national spatial policy and the urban polices at the national and local level. Finally he presents some general conclusions and recommendations. According to the author, because of complexity of the issues and challenges, the detailed formulation of state urban policies and its implementation must lie within the competence of a strong governmental institution (responsible for research, monitoring and evaluation, elaboration of visions and scenarios in a broad global context). The primary partner in the state urban policy, co-responsible for its success, should be adequately, provincial and local governments. Through the cooperation of state and territorial authorities, is the most strongly manifested multilevel model of “public governance”. The special role belongs to the local authorities due to their assigned competence in creation of local by law in respect of land use and building allocation. Efficient urban policy must have two dimensions; horizontal and territorial. Horizontal domain should belong to the state (national planning, passing the law, systemic intervention, etc.). Territorial dimension should belong first of all to local urban policies but formulated and implemented within the framework and measures defined by national spatial policy and operational state urban policies.
The article presents probable consequences for the protection of deposits and other mining needs, related to the entry into force of the Act of July 5, 2018 on the Facilitation of the Preparation and Implementation of Housing Investments and Accompanying Investments. This act introduces facilities for the preparation and implementation of housing as well as related projects, including the possibility of introducing investments incompatible with the existing local plans. In addition, it does so in a situation where land reserves for housing development, both in local plans and in studies of conditions and directions of spatial development, many times exceed the future needs of our country. The article presents the fundamental changes introduced by the Act to the existing planning and spatial planning system, as well as the risks associated with the mining industry. Among the latter, the following can be mentioned: lower stability of local law regulations, the possibility of resolving changes in spatial development at a very fast pace, without providing an effective way to inform subjects that may be threatened by these changes and increase the probability of the appearance of investments in the area of mining, the neighborhood of which may lead to limit or even liquidate these installations, due to even their disadvantages to housing. Some remedies have been proposed to mitigate some of the threats in the article. The Act in question was prepared and passed at an express pace, with a large opposition from many environments. At the same time, a number of legal solutions were applied in it, which were not applied in the Polish law. As a result, there are many doubts about the effects of its introduction.
The article raises the issue of zoning of the central area of Zamosc based on downtown unrealized projects. It also explains the genesis of the formation of its range and the spatial layout, which affected the functioning of nineteenth-century fortress. As early as 1804. Entailer Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski planned to demolish the decaying fortifications and sell strip of land fortress for development. Change the situation on the political arena of Europe made Zamosc under Tsarist Russia became a fortress – a closed town, where civilian activity have been pushed to the back burner and separated from the historical center of strategic cordoned off the circuit. It was not until 24 years after the dissolution of the fortress, in 1880. returned to the development concept of post-fortress area in connection with the planned development of the city, but this met with opposition the military commission – the owner of the land. After regaining independence, the magistrate put forward ambitious building projects realization in the esplanade of the formerly fortress, which this time met with the resistance of the military commissions. As a result of the conversion of disputed land in the late 30’s the post-fortress area was possible to invest. An example was enacted in 1939, pioneering in many respects, zoning plan Zamosc by Władyslaw Wieczorkiewicza and Jan Zachwatowicz in which the authors called for implementation of the downtown on the basis of a linear array of bifocal between the old town (Stare Miasto) and the Nowa Osada suburb.