Many Antarctic marine benthic invertebrates are adapted to specific environ− mental conditions (e.g. low stable temperatures, high salinity and oxygen content). Changes caused by global climatic shifts can be expected to have significant impact on their physiol− ogy and distribution. Odontaster validus, an ubiquitous, omnivorous sea star is one of the “keystone species” in the Antarctic benthic communities. Laboratory experiments were car− ried out to study the effect of temperature rise (from 0 to 5#2;C) on some vital biological func− tions that sea stars must perform in order to survive in their environment. Parameters such as behavioural reaction of sea stars to food and food odour, locomotory performance and abil− ity to right were measured. Temperature increase significantly impaired the ability of O. validus to perform these functions (e.g. lowering the number of sea stars able to right, in− creasing time−to−right, reducing locomotory activity, weakening chemosensory reaction to food and food odour). At temperatures of 4 and 5#2;C a loss of motor coordination was ob− served, although at all tested temperatures up to 5#2;C there were single individuals perform− ing successfully.
The brake linkage of a hoisting machine is a very important component determining the safety of the hoisting machine’s entire braking system. It is subject to weekly inspections. However, an efficiency test of brake performance is carried out every 6 months. Once every 3 years, a test must be carried out by an appraiser who pays particular attention to the executive and control components of the brakes as well as the strain - brake system and brake release components. The legal provisions regulating the testing of braking system linkages are not precise. So far, the control has been based on random measurement of strains using electrical resistance strain gauges stuck to the surface of the linkage. A new method for measuring the strains of the linkage has been proposed in the work. It is based on fibre optic strain sensors with Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBG). They are mounted using specially designed and tested holders for mounting on the brake linkage. They provide quick assembly and the measurement of strain in the direction parallel to the axis of the linkage. The structure of the holder also allows for the measurement in 4 positions turned every 90 relative to one another. Such a measurement enables a comprehensive analysis of strains and stresses in the brake linkage. In the work, it was shown that there is a complex state of strain and stress in the brake linkage. The previous procedures for linkage testing are inadequate in relation to this condition. An experimental and numerical method was proposed to assess the state of linkage stress. It should constitute the basis for the decision of the appraiser to allow the linkage for further use. The method proposed in the work also allows for continuous measurements of linkage strains as well as dynamic braking tests.
Based on the theory of heat transfer, the influence of expansion joints on the temperature and stress distribution of ladle lining is discussed. In view of the current expansion joint, the mathematical model of heat transfer and the three dimensional finite element model of ladle lining brick are established. By analyzing the temperature and stress distribution of ladle lining brick when the expansion joints are in different sizes, the thermal mechanical stress caused by the severe temperature difference can be reduced by the suitable expansion joint of the lining brick during the ladle baking and working process. The analysis results showed that the thermal mechanical stress which is caused by thermal expansion can be released through the 2 mm expansion joint, which is set in the building process. So we can effectively reduce the thermal mechanical stress of the ladle lining, and there is no risk of steel leakage, thus the service life of ladle can be effectively prolonged.
Salt stress causes severe reduction in the growth and yield of rice plants. The ability to maintain cellular ion homeostasis is of importance to help the plant survive under salt stress. Salt overly sensitive 1 (SOS1), a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter, has been proven to play critical roles in Na+ exclusion out of the cell, hence contributing to salt tolerance in plants. In this study, we analyzed the natural nucleotide polymorphisms occuring within the entire coding sequence as well as the upstream region of the OsSOS1 gene by comparing the sequences of two contrasting rice genotypes, namely, Nipponbare (salt-sensitive) and Pokkali (salt-resistant). In total, six nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the coding sequence, and 44 nucleotide substitutions, 225-bp-insertion and 65-bp-deletion were observed in the upstream region of the OsSOS1 gene. Futher in silico analysis revealed that two out of six nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding sequence were non-synonymous (A1600G, G2204A) which led to two amino acid substitutions (T534A, S735N, respectively) positioned in the C-terminal domain of OsSOS1 transporter, but caused no effect on protein properties. In the upstream region of OsSOS1 gene, 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms and two INDELs were identified, in which nucleotide substitutions at position -1392, -1389, -822, -583, +57 and an insertion at position -1035 caused change in cis-regulatory elements. Analysis of OsSOS1 expression revealed that salt induced the expression of the gene in the roots, but not in the leaves in both investigated rice cultivars.
This paper concerns the possibility of use the Jiles-Atherton extended model to describe the magnetic characteristics of construction steel St3 under mechanical stress. Results of the modelling utilizing extended Jiles-Atherton model are consistent with results of experimental measurements for magnetic hysteresis loops B(H). Material stress state determination by using non-destructive, magnetic properties based on testing techniques is an especially important problem.
Plant tissue culture techniques have become an integral part of progress in plant science research due to the opportunity offered for close study of detailed plant development with applications in food production through crop improvement, secondary metabolites production and conservation of species. Because the techniques involve growing plants under controlled conditions different from their natural outdoor environment, the plants need adjustments in physiology, anatomy and metabolism for successful in vitro propagation. Therefore, the protocol has to be optimized for a given species or genotype due to the variability in physiological and growth requirement. Developing the protocol is hampered by several physiological and developmental aberrations in the anatomy and physiology of the plantlets, attributed to in vitro culture conditions of high humidity, low light levels and hetero- or mixotrophic conditions. Some of the culture-induced anomalies become genetic, and the phenotype is inherited by clonal progenies while others are temporary and can be corrected at a later stage of protocol development through changes in anatomy, physiology and metabolism. The success of protocols relies on the transfer of plantlets to field conditions which has been achieved with many species through stages of acclimatization, while with others it remains a challenging task. This review discusses various adjustments in nutrition, physiology and anatomy of micro-propagated plants and field grown ones, as well as anomalies induced by the in vitro culture conditions.
This study presents results of stress rupture test of MAR-M-509 cobalt alloy samples, as-cast and after surface refining with a concentrated stream of heat. Tests were conducted on samples of MAR-M-509 alloy castings, obtained using the lost-wax method. Casting structure refining was performed with the GTAW method in argon atmosphere, using the current I = 200 A and electrical arc scanning velocity vs = 100, 150, 200 and 250 mm/min. The effect of rapid resolidification of the MAR-M-509 alloy on the microstructure was examined and significant improvement in stress rupture test was observed.
Plants adapt to extremely low temperatures in polar regions by maximizing their photosynthetic efficiency and accumulating cryoprotective and osmoprotective compounds. Flowering plants of the family Poaceae growing in the Arctic and in the Antarctic were investigated. Their responses to cold stress were analyzed under laboratory conditions. Samples were collected after 24 h and 48 h of cold treatment. Quantitative and qualitative changes of sugars are found among different species, but they can differ within a genus of the family Poaceae. The values of the investigated parameters in Poa annua differed considerably depending to the biogeographic origin of plants. At the beginning of the experiment, Antarctic plants were acclimatized in greenhouse characterized by significantly higher content of sugars, including storage reserves, sucrose and starch, but lower total protein content. After 24 h of exposure to cold stress, much smaller changes in the examined parameters were noted in Antarctic plants than in locally grown specimens. Total sugar content and sucrose, starch and glucose levels were nearly constant in P. annua, but they varied significantly. Those changes are responsible for the high adaptability of P. annua to survive and develop in highly unsupportive environments and colonize new regions.
Biological control of plant diseases is strongly emerging as an effective alternative to the use of chemical pesticides and fungicides. Stress tolerance is an important attribute in the selection of bacteria for the development of microbial inoculants. Fourteen salt-tolerant bacteria showing different morphological features isolated from the rhizosphere of maize were evaluated for different plant growth-promoting activities. All isolates showed auxin production ranging from 5 to 24 μg ⋅ ml–1 after 48 h incubation in tryptophan supplemented media. Phosphate solubilization ranged from 15 to 419 μg ⋅ ml–1. 1-aminocycloproprane- 1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity was shown by 6 isolates, ammonia production by 9 isolates, siderophore production by 8 isolates while HCN production by 4 isolates. Four bacterial isolates with all plant growth-promoting properties also showed strong antagonistic activities against Fusarium oxysporum, F. verticillioides, Curvularia lunata and Alternaria alternata and abiotic stress tolerance against salinity, temperature, pH and calcium salts. Two selected bacterial isolates significantly enhanced the growth of pea and maize test plants under greenhouse conditions. The bacterial isolate M1B2, which showed the highest growth promotion of test plants, was identified as Bacillus sp. based on phenotypic and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The results indicated that Bacillus sp. M1B2 is a potential candidate for the development of microbial inoculants in stressful environments.
In the article the equations have been worked making it possible to model the motion of freerunning grain mixture flow on a flat sloping vibrating sieve within the framework of shallow water theory. Free-running grain mixture is considered as a heterogeneous system consisting of two phases, one of which represents solid particles and the other one gas. The mixture is brought into a state of fluidity by means of high-frequency vibration imposition. Coefficients of internal and external friction and dynamic-viscosity decrease by exponential law as the fluctuation intensity is increased. When considering grain mixture dynamics, the following assumptions are put forward: we ignore the air presence in space between particles, we consider the density of particles to be constant, the free-running mixture is similar to Newtonian liquid. The basic system of equations of grain mixture dynamics is due to the laws of continuum mechanics. The equation of continuity is issued from the law of conservation of mass, and the dynamic equations are issued from the law of variation of momentum. The stress tensor equals to the sum of the equilibrium tensor and the dissipative tensor. The equilibrium part of the stress tensor is represented by the spherical tensor, which is found to conform to Pascal law for liquids, and the dissipative part, which is responsible for viscous force effect and defined by Navier-Stokes law. Boundary conditions on the surfaces (restricting the capacity of the free-running grain mixture) have been researched. The distributions of apparent density and velocity field are assigned at the inlet and outlet flow sections of the mixture. The normal velocity component of the grain mixture on the side frames and on the sieve becomes zero, which meets the no-fluid-loss condition of the medium through the frame. Beyond that point at this time we satisfy dynamic conditions, which characterize the mixture sliding down the hard frame, motion flow resistance force is represented as average velocity linear dependence. A kinematic condition and two dynamic ones are stipulated on the free surface layer. One of the conditions states mass flow continuity across the free surface, the other one states the stress continuity while passing through the free surface. The basic premise of planned motion equations is the condition of small size of flow depth in comparison with its width. With the use of shallow water theory the basic principles of the equations of flow dynamics are simplified and for their solving a Cauchy problem can be set.
This paper presents an elasticity solution of adhesive tubular joints in laminated composites, with axial symmetry. In this model, adherends are orthotropic shells and the stacking sequences can be either symmetric or asymmetric. Adhesive layer is homogenous and made of isotropic material. They are modelled as continuously distributed tension/compression and shear springs. Employing constitutive, kinematics and equilibrium equations, sets of differential equations for each inside and outside of overlap zones are obtained. By solving these equations, shear and peel stresses in adhesive layer(s), as well as deflections, stress resultants and moment resultants in the adherends are determined. It is seen that the magnitude of peel stresses due to transverse shear stress resultant is much greater than that obtained from axial stress resultant. The developed results are compared with those obtained by finite element analysis using ANSYS software. The comparisons demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the aforementioned methods.
This study investigated leaf mesophyll cells of Caryophyllaceae plants growing in polar regions – Cerastium alpinum and Silene involucrata from the Hornsund region of Spitsbergen island (Svalbard Archipelago, Arctic), and Colobanthus quitensis from the Admiralty Bay region on King George Island (South Shetland Islands, West Antarctic). Ultra− structural changes were analyzed in mesophyll protoplasts of plants growing in natural Arctic and Antarctic habitats and plants grown in a greenhouse, including plants exposed to short−term cold stress under se mi−controlled conditions. Cell organelles of plants growing in natural polar habitats and greenhouse−grown plants were characterized by significant morphological plasticity. Chloroplasts of plants studied in this work formed variously shaped protrusions and invaginations that visibly increased the contact area between adjacent cell compartments and reduced the distance between organelles. S. involucrata plants grown under greenhouse conditions, tested by us in this wor k, were characterized by highly dynamic cell nuclei with single or multiple invaginations of the nuclear membrane and the presence of channels and cisternae filled with cytoplasm and organelles. Crystalline inclusion proteins were observed in the cell nuclei of C. quitensis between nuclear membranes and in the direct proximity of heterochromatin. Our study revealed significant conformational dynamics of organelles, manifested by variations in the optical density of matrices, membranes and envelopes, in particular in C. quitensis , which could suggest that the analyzed Caryophyllaceae taxa are well adapted to severe climate and changing conditions in polar regions.
The study presents the results of the application of a statistical analysis for the evaluation of the effect of high-melting additions introduced into a pressure cast Al-Si alloy on the obtained level of its proof stress Rp0.2. The base Al-Si alloy used for the tests was a typical alloy used for pressure casting grade EN AC-46000. The base alloy was enriched with high-melting additions, such as: Cr, Mo, V and W. The additions were introduced into the base Al-Si alloy in all the possible combinations. The content of the particular high-melting addition in the Al-Si alloy was within the scope of 0.05 to 0.50%. The investigations were performed on both the base alloy and alloy with the high-melting element additions. Within the implementation of the studies, the values of Rp0.2 were determined for all the considered chemical compositions of the Al-Si alloy. A database was created for the statistical analysis, containing the independent variables (chemical composition data) and dependent variables (examined Rp0.2 values). The performed statistical analysis aimed at determining whether the examined high-melting additions had a significant effect on the level of Rp0.2 of the Al-Si alloy as well as optimizing their contents in order to obtain the highest values of the Al-Si alloy's proof stress Rp0.2. The analyses showed that each considered high-melting addition introduced into the Al-Si alloy in a proper amount can cause an increase of the proof stress Rp0.2 of the alloy, and the optimal content of each examined high-melting addition in respect of the highest obtained value of Rp0.2 equals 0.05%.