Many Antarctic marine benthic invertebrates are adapted to specific environ− mental conditions (e.g. low stable temperatures, high salinity and oxygen content). Changes caused by global climatic shifts can be expected to have significant impact on their physiol− ogy and distribution. Odontaster validus, an ubiquitous, omnivorous sea star is one of the “keystone species” in the Antarctic benthic communities. Laboratory experiments were car− ried out to study the effect of temperature rise (from 0 to 5#2;C) on some vital biological func− tions that sea stars must perform in order to survive in their environment. Parameters such as behavioural reaction of sea stars to food and food odour, locomotory performance and abil− ity to right were measured. Temperature increase significantly impaired the ability of O. validus to perform these functions (e.g. lowering the number of sea stars able to right, in− creasing time−to−right, reducing locomotory activity, weakening chemosensory reaction to food and food odour). At temperatures of 4 and 5#2;C a loss of motor coordination was ob− served, although at all tested temperatures up to 5#2;C there were single individuals perform− ing successfully.
The brake linkage of a hoisting machine is a very important component determining the safety of the hoisting machine’s entire braking system. It is subject to weekly inspections. However, an efficiency test of brake performance is carried out every 6 months. Once every 3 years, a test must be carried out by an appraiser who pays particular attention to the executive and control components of the brakes as well as the strain - brake system and brake release components. The legal provisions regulating the testing of braking system linkages are not precise. So far, the control has been based on random measurement of strains using electrical resistance strain gauges stuck to the surface of the linkage. A new method for measuring the strains of the linkage has been proposed in the work. It is based on fibre optic strain sensors with Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBG). They are mounted using specially designed and tested holders for mounting on the brake linkage. They provide quick assembly and the measurement of strain in the direction parallel to the axis of the linkage. The structure of the holder also allows for the measurement in 4 positions turned every 90 relative to one another. Such a measurement enables a comprehensive analysis of strains and stresses in the brake linkage. In the work, it was shown that there is a complex state of strain and stress in the brake linkage. The previous procedures for linkage testing are inadequate in relation to this condition. An experimental and numerical method was proposed to assess the state of linkage stress. It should constitute the basis for the decision of the appraiser to allow the linkage for further use. The method proposed in the work also allows for continuous measurements of linkage strains as well as dynamic braking tests.
This paper concerns the possibility of use the Jiles-Atherton extended model to describe the magnetic characteristics of construction steel St3 under mechanical stress. Results of the modelling utilizing extended Jiles-Atherton model are consistent with results of experimental measurements for magnetic hysteresis loops B(H). Material stress state determination by using non-destructive, magnetic properties based on testing techniques is an especially important problem.
This study presents results of stress rupture test of MAR-M-509 cobalt alloy samples, as-cast and after surface refining with a concentrated stream of heat. Tests were conducted on samples of MAR-M-509 alloy castings, obtained using the lost-wax method. Casting structure refining was performed with the GTAW method in argon atmosphere, using the current I = 200 A and electrical arc scanning velocity vs = 100, 150, 200 and 250 mm/min. The effect of rapid resolidification of the MAR-M-509 alloy on the microstructure was examined and significant improvement in stress rupture test was observed.
Oxidative stress (OxS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD). The aim of this study was to examine whether nonenzymatic antioxidants are associated with active CD, by using the FRAP and GSH assay in plasma. Additionally, we measured bilirubin and albumin levels as two individual components of the plasma antioxidant system. A total of 55 patients with established CD, 30 with active CD and 25 with inactive disease, and 25 healthy individuals were prospectively enrolled in this study. We evaluated CD activity index, BMI and blood morphology, platelet count, serum CRP level, and bochemical parameters of OxS: ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), reduced glutathione (GSH) in plasma and bilirubin and albumin levels in serum. Plasma FRAP and GSH concentrations were decreased in both CD groups compared to controls and negatively correlated with CDAI values (FRAP: r = –0.572, p = 0.003; GSH: r = –0.761, p = 0.001), CRP and platelet count. Bilirubin and albumin levels were lower in the serum of active CD patients than inactive CD patients and controls and negatively correlated with the CD activity index (r = –0328, p = 0.036, r = –0.518, p = 0.002) and CRP (r = –0.433, p = 0.002). The decreased FRAP and GSH levels in plasma and bilirubin and albumin levels in serum of patients with active CD compared to inactive CD and controls underlines the importance of OxS in the pathophysiology and activity of CD.
Biological control of plant diseases is strongly emerging as an effective alternative to the use of chemical pesticides and fungicides. Stress tolerance is an important attribute in the selection of bacteria for the development of microbial inoculants. Fourteen salt-tolerant bacteria showing different morphological features isolated from the rhizosphere of maize were evaluated for different plant growth-promoting activities. All isolates showed auxin production ranging from 5 to 24 μg ⋅ ml–1 after 48 h incubation in tryptophan supplemented media. Phosphate solubilization ranged from 15 to 419 μg ⋅ ml–1. 1-aminocycloproprane- 1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity was shown by 6 isolates, ammonia production by 9 isolates, siderophore production by 8 isolates while HCN production by 4 isolates. Four bacterial isolates with all plant growth-promoting properties also showed strong antagonistic activities against Fusarium oxysporum, F. verticillioides, Curvularia lunata and Alternaria alternata and abiotic stress tolerance against salinity, temperature, pH and calcium salts. Two selected bacterial isolates significantly enhanced the growth of pea and maize test plants under greenhouse conditions. The bacterial isolate M1B2, which showed the highest growth promotion of test plants, was identified as Bacillus sp. based on phenotypic and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The results indicated that Bacillus sp. M1B2 is a potential candidate for the development of microbial inoculants in stressful environments.
Plants adapt to extremely low temperatures in polar regions by maximizing their photosynthetic efficiency and accumulating cryoprotective and osmoprotective compounds. Flowering plants of the family Poaceae growing in the Arctic and in the Antarctic were investigated. Their responses to cold stress were analyzed under laboratory conditions. Samples were collected after 24 h and 48 h of cold treatment. Quantitative and qualitative changes of sugars are found among different species, but they can differ within a genus of the family Poaceae. The values of the investigated parameters in Poa annua differed considerably depending to the biogeographic origin of plants. At the beginning of the experiment, Antarctic plants were acclimatized in greenhouse characterized by significantly higher content of sugars, including storage reserves, sucrose and starch, but lower total protein content. After 24 h of exposure to cold stress, much smaller changes in the examined parameters were noted in Antarctic plants than in locally grown specimens. Total sugar content and sucrose, starch and glucose levels were nearly constant in P. annua, but they varied significantly. Those changes are responsible for the high adaptability of P. annua to survive and develop in highly unsupportive environments and colonize new regions.
Salt stress causes severe reduction in the growth and yield of rice plants. The ability to maintain cellular ion homeostasis is of importance to help the plant survive under salt stress. Salt overly sensitive 1 (SOS1), a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter, has been proven to play critical roles in Na+ exclusion out of the cell, hence contributing to salt tolerance in plants. In this study, we analyzed the natural nucleotide polymorphisms occuring within the entire coding sequence as well as the upstream region of the OsSOS1 gene by comparing the sequences of two contrasting rice genotypes, namely, Nipponbare (salt-sensitive) and Pokkali (salt-resistant). In total, six nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the coding sequence, and 44 nucleotide substitutions, 225-bp-insertion and 65-bp-deletion were observed in the upstream region of the OsSOS1 gene. Futher in silico analysis revealed that two out of six nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding sequence were non-synonymous (A1600G, G2204A) which led to two amino acid substitutions (T534A, S735N, respectively) positioned in the C-terminal domain of OsSOS1 transporter, but caused no effect on protein properties. In the upstream region of OsSOS1 gene, 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms and two INDELs were identified, in which nucleotide substitutions at position -1392, -1389, -822, -583, +57 and an insertion at position -1035 caused change in cis-regulatory elements. Analysis of OsSOS1 expression revealed that salt induced the expression of the gene in the roots, but not in the leaves in both investigated rice cultivars.
In the article the equations have been worked making it possible to model the motion of freerunning grain mixture flow on a flat sloping vibrating sieve within the framework of shallow water theory. Free-running grain mixture is considered as a heterogeneous system consisting of two phases, one of which represents solid particles and the other one gas. The mixture is brought into a state of fluidity by means of high-frequency vibration imposition. Coefficients of internal and external friction and dynamic-viscosity decrease by exponential law as the fluctuation intensity is increased. When considering grain mixture dynamics, the following assumptions are put forward: we ignore the air presence in space between particles, we consider the density of particles to be constant, the free-running mixture is similar to Newtonian liquid. The basic system of equations of grain mixture dynamics is due to the laws of continuum mechanics. The equation of continuity is issued from the law of conservation of mass, and the dynamic equations are issued from the law of variation of momentum. The stress tensor equals to the sum of the equilibrium tensor and the dissipative tensor. The equilibrium part of the stress tensor is represented by the spherical tensor, which is found to conform to Pascal law for liquids, and the dissipative part, which is responsible for viscous force effect and defined by Navier-Stokes law. Boundary conditions on the surfaces (restricting the capacity of the free-running grain mixture) have been researched. The distributions of apparent density and velocity field are assigned at the inlet and outlet flow sections of the mixture. The normal velocity component of the grain mixture on the side frames and on the sieve becomes zero, which meets the no-fluid-loss condition of the medium through the frame. Beyond that point at this time we satisfy dynamic conditions, which characterize the mixture sliding down the hard frame, motion flow resistance force is represented as average velocity linear dependence. A kinematic condition and two dynamic ones are stipulated on the free surface layer. One of the conditions states mass flow continuity across the free surface, the other one states the stress continuity while passing through the free surface. The basic premise of planned motion equations is the condition of small size of flow depth in comparison with its width. With the use of shallow water theory the basic principles of the equations of flow dynamics are simplified and for their solving a Cauchy problem can be set.
This study investigated leaf mesophyll cells of Caryophyllaceae plants growing in polar regions – Cerastium alpinum and Silene involucrata from the Hornsund region of Spitsbergen island (Svalbard Archipelago, Arctic), and Colobanthus quitensis from the Admiralty Bay region on King George Island (South Shetland Islands, West Antarctic). Ultra− structural changes were analyzed in mesophyll protoplasts of plants growing in natural Arctic and Antarctic habitats and plants grown in a greenhouse, including plants exposed to short−term cold stress under se mi−controlled conditions. Cell organelles of plants growing in natural polar habitats and greenhouse−grown plants were characterized by significant morphological plasticity. Chloroplasts of plants studied in this work formed variously shaped protrusions and invaginations that visibly increased the contact area between adjacent cell compartments and reduced the distance between organelles. S. involucrata plants grown under greenhouse conditions, tested by us in this wor k, were characterized by highly dynamic cell nuclei with single or multiple invaginations of the nuclear membrane and the presence of channels and cisternae filled with cytoplasm and organelles. Crystalline inclusion proteins were observed in the cell nuclei of C. quitensis between nuclear membranes and in the direct proximity of heterochromatin. Our study revealed significant conformational dynamics of organelles, manifested by variations in the optical density of matrices, membranes and envelopes, in particular in C. quitensis , which could suggest that the analyzed Caryophyllaceae taxa are well adapted to severe climate and changing conditions in polar regions.
The study presents the results of the application of a statistical analysis for the evaluation of the effect of high-melting additions introduced into a pressure cast Al-Si alloy on the obtained level of its proof stress Rp0.2. The base Al-Si alloy used for the tests was a typical alloy used for pressure casting grade EN AC-46000. The base alloy was enriched with high-melting additions, such as: Cr, Mo, V and W. The additions were introduced into the base Al-Si alloy in all the possible combinations. The content of the particular high-melting addition in the Al-Si alloy was within the scope of 0.05 to 0.50%. The investigations were performed on both the base alloy and alloy with the high-melting element additions. Within the implementation of the studies, the values of Rp0.2 were determined for all the considered chemical compositions of the Al-Si alloy. A database was created for the statistical analysis, containing the independent variables (chemical composition data) and dependent variables (examined Rp0.2 values). The performed statistical analysis aimed at determining whether the examined high-melting additions had a significant effect on the level of Rp0.2 of the Al-Si alloy as well as optimizing their contents in order to obtain the highest values of the Al-Si alloy's proof stress Rp0.2. The analyses showed that each considered high-melting addition introduced into the Al-Si alloy in a proper amount can cause an increase of the proof stress Rp0.2 of the alloy, and the optimal content of each examined high-melting addition in respect of the highest obtained value of Rp0.2 equals 0.05%.
Influence of the initial grain size on hot deformation behavior of the low-alloy Mn-Ti-B steel was investigated. The uniaxial compression tests were performed in range of the deformation temperatures of 900-1200°C and strain rates of 0.1-10 s–1. One set of samples was heated directly to the deformation temperature, which corresponded to the initial austenitic grain size of 19-56 μm; the other set of samples was uniformly preheated at the temperature of 1200°C. Whereas the values of activation energy, peak stress and steady-state stress values practically did not depend on the initial austenitic grain size, the peak strain values of coarser-grained structure significantly increase mainly at high values of the Zener-Hollomon parameter. This confirms the negative effect of the large size of the initial grain on the dynamic recrystallization kinetics, which can be explained by the reduction in nucleation density.
This article employs the classical Euler–Bernoulli beam theory in connection with Green–Naghdi’s generalized thermoelasticity theory without energy dissipation to investigate the vibrating microbeam. The microbeam is considered with linearly varying thickness and subjected to various boundary conditions. The heat and motion equations are obtained using the modified couple stress analysis in terms of deflection with only one material length-scale parameter to capture the size-dependent behavior. Various combinations of free, simply-supported, and clamped boundary conditions are presented. The effect of length-to-thickness ratio, as well as the influence of both couple stress parameter and thermoelastic coupling, are all discussed. Furthermore, the effect of reference temperature on the eigenfrequency is also investigated. The vibration frequencies indicate that the tapered microbeam modeled by modified couple stress analysis causes more responses than that modeled by classical continuum beam theory, even the thermoelastic coupled is taken into account.
This paper presents an elasticity solution of adhesive tubular joints in laminated composites, with axial symmetry. In this model, adherends are orthotropic shells and the stacking sequences can be either symmetric or asymmetric. Adhesive layer is homogenous and made of isotropic material. They are modelled as continuously distributed tension/compression and shear springs. Employing constitutive, kinematics and equilibrium equations, sets of differential equations for each inside and outside of overlap zones are obtained. By solving these equations, shear and peel stresses in adhesive layer(s), as well as deflections, stress resultants and moment resultants in the adherends are determined. It is seen that the magnitude of peel stresses due to transverse shear stress resultant is much greater than that obtained from axial stress resultant. The developed results are compared with those obtained by finite element analysis using ANSYS software. The comparisons demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the aforementioned methods.
Oxygen is used for medical treatment and general anesthesia. However, high concentrations of oxygen can have toxic effects on cells. In veterinary medicine, 100% oxygen is usually used during general anesthesia and it can be toxic to animals. However, there is little concern about its harmful effects in humans. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that using a high con- centration of oxygen increases the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2) more so than a lower concentration, by comparing PaO2 at three different oxygen concentrations (100%, 60%, and 40%) in six dogs under general anesthesia for 3 hours. The mean PaO2 and standard error values at the 100%, 60%, and 40% oxygen concentrations were 535.8 ± 24.01, 374 ± 17.19, and 239 ± 8.78 mmHg, respectively (p<0.05). These results show that 100% and 60% oxygen concentrations could increase oxidative stress. Further studies are needed to examine the oxygen concentration that causes toxicity.
In the present study on Bubalus bubalis of the Campania Region (Italy) the serum levels of derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs), anti-ROM and oxidative stress index (Osi) were evaluated. These data were then related to the seropositive status of the animals against alpha-herpesviruses, precisely Bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV-1) and Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Clinically healthy Mediterranean buffaloes were selected for this study. The serum samples of these animals were taken, and d-ROMs, anti-ROM and Osi were measured using commercially available tests. The preliminary data demonstrated that animals seropositive to both BuHV-1 and BoHV-1 present more oxidative stress than seronegative animals, as revealed by a significant increase in d-ROMs. Our results provide, for the first time, insight into the reac- tive oxygen species (ROS) modulation induced by the herpesvirus in Bubalus bubalis.