In the southern Spitsbergen area, thermal and mineral waters are primarily associated with subpermafrost deep circulation, being mixed with shallow circulation and glacial waters. Four thermal springs, located in the region of Stormbukta (Sørkappland), were studied and analyzed. In the thermal waters, the main cation is sodium, while the main anions are chloride and bicarbonate. The temperatures of the mineral and thermal waters range from 3.4 to 15.1°C. The pH values are between 7.43 and 8.41. The total dissolved solids (TDS) content of the geothermal waters is in the range of 346–4031 mg/l and the Olsok thermal spring has the highest TDS values. Based on the variation in physicochemical characteristics, two thermal water types were distinguished in the study area. The first type is associated with thermal waters originating from deep circulation waters. The second type is associated with the thermal and mineral waters originating from the mixture of subpermfrost hot brines with glacial waters.
The aim of the present study was to develop a modifier for water glass. The method of thermal generation of metal oxide nanoparticles was adapted and used in the research. Nanoparticles of ZnO from the thermal decomposition of basic zinc carbonate were used. A method for the modifier introduction was developed, and the effect of modifier content and organic solvent type on the physico-chemical properties of binder (viscosity) and quartz wettability was determined. Binder viscosity was examined from the flow curves plotted with the help of a RHEOTEST 2 rotational rheometer equipped with proper software. Quartz wettability was determined examining timerelated changes in the value of the contact angle in a quartz-binder system, until full stabilisation of the angle value has been achieved. Binder modification was carried out on sodium water glass designated as R"145". The water glass modifiers were suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles in propanol and methanol at a fixed concentration of c = 0.3 M and with the size of nanoparticles comprised in a range of <61 - 981 nm>. Water glass modification with the suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles in methanol and propanol showed the effect of modifier on the water glass viscosity and quartz wettability. This effect depends on the type of alcohol used. The ZnO suspension in propanol (alcohol with a longer hydrocarbon chain) affects more strongly the viscosity of binder and quartz wettability than the methanol suspension.