The French consulate founded in Gdańsk in 1610 was probably the fi rst consulate in the Polish- -Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was established by the King of France, Henri IV. The State Archive in Gdańsk holds a document dated on 23 April 1610 nominating Jean de La Blanque to the post of the French consul in Gdańsk. This was part of a wider diplomatic plan by the French monarch to set up a French alliance with Sweden and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
This article discusses two successive confederations established by the clients and employees of Janusz Ostrogski. They functioned just after the death of their patron, mainly within the Ostrogski Fee Tail. The fi rst, founded in 1620, was concerned with the property claims of Ostrogski’s most trusted servants and clients during the settlement of his estate. The second exemplifi ed the political demands of the landed nobility whose domains fell within the Ostrogski Fee Tail. Both of these played an important role in shaping the legal and organisational framework for estates.
This article presents Jewish mutual aid associations in the Kingdom of Poland in the nineteenth century. Among the discussed matters are: the legal foundations for organising associations of this type, the chronology of their establishment, the socio-professional character of the founders and members, the attitudes of the authorities towards the creation and operation of these associations. The article is based on original, previously rarely used archives. There were 67 associations established in the discussed time period, including 32 in the Piotrków district (gubernia) and 17 in the Warsaw district.
The National Lottery was established in the Free City of Kraków (1815–1846) by the Representative Assembly in 1821. It was the source of revenue for the treasury and was leased to a private entrepreneur, Florian Straszewski, known for having contributed to the creation of the Planty Park in Kraków. The lottery was divided class and numerical lotteries, each of which was organised according to different regulations, but with the same lottery administrator (Directorate of the Lottery). It was supervised by the city Senate. The latter issued several laws which regulated the organisation and functioning of the Directory of the Lottery, the sale points, and State Commissioners who were involved in the lottery drawings. The article also discusses the conditions of a typical contract signed with F. Straszewski and the “Plan loterii klasowej” (Plan of the Class Lottery) of 1840. The National Lottery functioned between 1822–1844.
Textural properties and microstructures are commonly used properties in the analysis of Pleistocene and older glacial deposits. However, contemporary glacial deposits are seldom studied, particularly in the context of post-depositional changes. This paper presents the results of a micromorphological study of recently deposited tills in the marginal zones of Hansbreen and Torellbreen, glaciers in southwestern Spitsbergen. The main objectives of this study were to compare modern tills deposited in subglacial and supraglacial conditions, as well as tills that were freshly released from ice with those laid down several decades ago. The investigated tills are primarily composed of large clasts of metamorphic rocks and represent coarse-grained, matrix-supported diamictons. The tills reveal several characteristic features for ductile (e.g. turbate structures) and brittle (e.g. lineations, microshears) deformations, which have been considered to be indicative of subglacial conditions. In supraglacial tills, the same structures are common as in the subglacial deposits, which points to the preservation of the primary features, though the sediment was transferred up to the glacier surface due to basal ice layer deformation and redeposited as slumps, or to formation of similar structures due to short-distance sediment re-deposition by mass flows. This study revealed that it might not be possible to distinguish subglacial and supraglacial tills on the basis of micromorphology if the latter are derived from a subglacial position. The only noted difference was the presence of iron oxide cementation zones and carbonate dissolution features in supraglacial tills. These features were found in tills that were deposited at least a few years ago and are interpreted to be induced by early post-depositional processes involving porewater/sediment interactions.
Abstract The reachability of standard and fractional-order continuous-time systems with constant inputs is addressed. Positive and non-positive continuous-time linear systems are considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such constant inputs that steers the system from zero initial conditions to the given final state in desired time are derived and proved. As an example of such systems the electrical circuits with DC voltage sources are presented.