The pharmacokinetics of a diclofenac sodium was investigated in swine. A single intravenous (i.v.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injection of 5% diclofenac sodium (concentration = 2.5 mg · kg-1) was administered to 8 healthy pigs according to a two-period crossover design. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis with DAS2.1.1 software. After a single i.v. administration, the main pharmacokinetic parameters of diclofenac sodium injection in swine were as follows: the elimination half-time (T1/2β) was 1.32±0.34 h; the area under the curve (AUC) was (55.50±5.50 μg · mL-1 h; the mean residence time (MRT) was 1.60±0.28 h; the apparent volume of distribution (Vd) was 0.50±0.05 L · kg-1; and the body clearance (CLB) was 0.26±0.04 L · (h · kg)-1. After the single i.m. administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: peak time (Tmax) was 1.19±0.26 h; and peak concentration (Cmax) was 11.61±5.99 μg mL-1. The diclofenac sodium has the following pharmacokinetic characteristics in swine: rapid absorption and elimination; high peak concentration; and bioavailability.
The welfare and healthy growth of poultry under intensive feeding conditions are closely related to their living environment. In spring, the air quality considerably decreases due to reduced ventilation and aeration in cage systems, which influences the meat quality and health of broilers during normal growth stages. In this study, we analyzed the airborne bacterial communities in PM2.5 and PM10 in cage broiler houses at different broiler growth stages under intensive rearing conditions based on the high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing technique. Our results revealed that PM2.5, PM10 and airborne microbes gradually increased during the broiler growth cycle in poultry houses. Some potential or opportunistic pathogens, including Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Enterococcus, Microbacterium, etc., were found in the broiler houses at different growth stages. Our study evaluated variations in the microbial communities in PM2.5 and PM10 and potential opportunistic pathogens during the growth cycle of broilers in poultry houses in the spring. Our findings may provide a basis for developing technologies for air quality control in caged poultry houses.
In the current study, twenty lambs, aged 4 months, half male and half female, were classified into four groups, with five in each group. The experimental three groups of lambs were given intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) administrations of recombinant ovine interferon-τ (roIFN-τ). The fourth group (normal control) of lambs was given normal saline injections in the same way. After administrations, blood samples were collected from the tested animals at different time points post injection, and the serum titers of roIFN-τ were measured using cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition bioassay. The results of calculating pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters using DAS software showed that the PK characteristics of roIFN-τ through IV injection conformed to the two-compartment open model, whose half-life of distribution phases (T1/2α) was 0.33±0.034 h and the elimination half-life(T1/2β) was 5.01±0.24 h. However, the PK features of IM injection and SC injection of roIFN-τ conformed to the one compartment open model, whose Tmax were 3.11±0.26 h and 4.83±0.43 h, respectively, together with an elimination half life(T1/2β) of 9.11±0.76 h and 7. 43±0.58 h, and an absorption half-life (T1/2k(a)) of 1.13±0.31 h and 1.85±0.40 h, respectively. The bioavailability of roIFN-τ after IM administration reaches 73.57%, which is greater than that of SC administration (53.43%). These results indicate that the drug administration effect can be preferably obtained following a single dose IM administration of the roIFN-τ aqueous preparation. This study will facilitate the clinical application of roIFN-τ as a potential antiviral agent in future work.
The friction and wear properties of 201HT aluminum alloys and the corresponding competitive coupons were tested on an electrohydraulic servo face friction and wear testing machine (MM-U10G). The microstructures of the competitive coupons were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and consequently the corresponding friction and wear mechanisms were studied. The results demonstrated that: (1) the best competitive material of friction and wear performance of the 201HT was the 201HTC. (2) the 201HTC modified by carbon following the initial mill for oil storage of the micro-groove to be produced, increased the corresponding lubrication performance reduced the friction coefficient and wear rate effectively. (3) the 201HT-201HTC could obtain both better friction and wear mainly due to the initial process of grinding following the 201HT plastic deformation occurred in the surface and the formation of a series of re-melting welding points, whereas the 201HT material hardness would be similar to the 201HTC material hardness, which led into the competitive material friction and wear performance improvement.
Vaccination is a common routine for prevention and control of human and animal diseases by inducing antibody responses and cell-mediated immunity in the body. Through vaccinations, smallpox and some other diseases have been eradicated in the past few years. The use of a patho- gen itself or a subunit domain of a protein antigen as immunogens lays the basis for traditional vaccine development. But there are more and more newly emerged pathogens which have expe- rienced antigenic drift or shift under antibody selective pressures, rendering vaccine-induced im- munity ineffective. In addition, vaccine development has been hampered due to problems includ- ing difficulties in isolation and culture of certain pathogens and the antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection (ADE). How to induce strong antibody responses, especially neu- tralizing antibody responses, and robust cell-mediated immune responses is tricky. Here we re- view the progress in vaccine development from traditional vaccine design to reverse vaccinology and structural vaccinology and present with some helpful perspectives on developing novel vac- cines.
Recycling construction and demolition waste not only reduces project costs; and saves natural resources, but also solves the environmental threat caused by construction waste disposal. In this paper, C25 waste road concrete is used as an experimental material, the uniaxial compression strength and tensile splitting strength of C25 RAC whose coarse aggregate replacement rate is 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% are tested under the condition that the water-to-cement ratio is 0.47, 0.55 and 0.61. The results show: (1) the uniaxial compression strength and tensile splitting strength decrease with the increase of RAC; (2) for concrete with the same water-to-cement ratio, when the coarse aggregate replacement rate changes from 0% to 50%, the uniaxial compression strength and tensile splitting strength of RAC changes slightly. When the coarse aggregate replacement rate changes from 50% to 100%, the uniaxial compression strength and tensile splitting strength of RAC decreases rapidly
This study proposes a surface profile and roughness measurement system for a fibre-optic interconnect based on optical interferometry. On the principle of Fizeau interferometer, an interference fringe is formed on the fibre end-face of the fibre-optic interconnect, and the fringe pattern is analysed using the Fast Fourier transform method to reconstruct the surface profile. However, as the obtained surface profile contains some amount of tilt, a rule for estimating this tilt value is developed in this paper. The actual fibre end-face surface profile is obtained by subtracting the estimated tilt amount from the surface profile, as calculated by the Fast Fourier transform method, and the corresponding surface roughness can be determined. The proposed system is characterized by non-contact measurement, and the sample is not coated with a reflector during measurement. According to the experimental results, the difference between the roughness measurement result of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and the measurement result of this system is less than 3 nm.
Objective: This study aimed to investigate developmental changes of the thymus and intra- thymic IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α expression in weaned Sprague-Dawley rats induced by lipopolysac- charide. Methods: Forty healthy weaned rats aged 26 days and weighing 83±4 g were randomly and equally divided into two groups. The lipopolysaccharide group was treated daily with a single injection of lipopolysaccharide for 10 consecutive days, and the saline group was treated with an equal volume of sterilized saline. On the 1st, 4th, 7th and 10th day, histological changes and distribu- tion of IL-1β-, IL-6- and TNF-α-positive cells were detected in the thymus by hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining, respectively. Subsequently, the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were evaluated in the thymus by the ELISA method. Results: Thymus weight and index were significantly smaller in lipopolysaccharide-treated rats than in saline-treated rats (p<0.05), but no substantial changes were found in the thymus microstructure after lipopolysaccharide induction. Moreover, a large number of IL-1β-, IL-6- and TNF-α-positive cells were observed with brownish-yellow color and mainly distributed in the thy- mus parenchyma, both integrated optical density and average optical density increased signifi- cantly in lipopolysaccharide-treated rats than those in saline-treated rats. Compared with the saline group, most of the thymic homogenates had higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the lipopolysaccharide group on different days. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the thymus atrophied after lipopolysaccharide induction in weaned Sprague-Dawley rats, and excessive production of intrathymic IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α was probably involved in the atrophic process.
Pseudorabies (PR) outbreaks have devastated many swine farms in several parts of China since late 2011. The outbreak-associated pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant strains exhibited some typical amino acid changes in glycoprotein E (gE), a diagnostic antigen used for discriminating between PRV-infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA). To counteract the potential impact of epitope variations on current serological diagnostics of PRV, we produced monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against gE protein of one representative PRV variant strain and developed a blocking immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (b-IPMA) for DIVA. The b-IPMA was based on the inhibition of binding between PRV-infected cells and mAb by PRV-specific antibodies present in clinical swine sera and was validated by comparison with a commercial PRV gpI Antibody Test Kit (IDEXX Laboratories, USA). The diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity and agreement were determined to be 99.25%, 98.18% and 99.02% respectively upon testing 509 serum samples. b-IPMA detected only PRV-specific antibodies and showed no cross- -reactivity with antibodies elicited by gE-deleted vaccine or other common swine pathogens. Thus, b-IPMA has the potential to be used for high-throughput screening of PRV-infected animals in veterinary clinics.
Sapelovirus A (SV-A) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus which is associated with acute diarrhea, pneumonia and reproductive disorders. The virus capsid is composed of four proteins, and the functions of the structural proteins are unclear. In this study, we expressed SV-A structural protein VP1 and studied its antigenicity and immunogenicity. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the target gene was expressed at high levels at 0.6 mM concentration of IPTG for 24 h. The mouse polyclonal antibody against SV-A VP1 protein was produced and reached a high antiserum titer (1: 2,048,000). Immunized mice sera with the recombinant SV-A VP1 protein showed specific recognition of purified VP1 protein by western blot assay and could recognize native SV-A VP1 protein in PK-15 cells infected with SV-A by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The successfully purified recombinant protein was able to preserve its antigenic determinants and the generated mouse anti-SV-A VP1 antibodies could recognize native SV-A, which may have the potential to be used to detect SV-A infection in pigs.