In the study a new proposal of convective velocity determination necessary for eddy size determination from the dissipative range in a turbulent flow in a mixer was made. The proposed quantity depends on all the mean and fluctuating velocity components. By applying convective velocity one may determine the distribution of time and linear Taylor microscale in a stirred vessel.
Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is a simulation method at mesoscopic scales that bridges the gap between molecular dynamics and continuum hydrodynamics. It can simulate efficiently complex liquids and dense suspensions using only a few thousands of virtual particles and at speed-up factors of more than one hundred thousands compared to Molecular Dynamics. Lowes approach provides a powerful alternative to the usual DPD integrating schemes. Here, we demonstrate the details and potential of Lowes scheme. We compute viscosity, diffusivity and Schmidt number values and we present comparison of wormlike chain models under shear with experimental and Brownian Dynamics results for ll-phage DNA.
Recently, there has been research on high frequency dissipative mufflers. However, research on shape optimization of hybrid mufflers that reduce broadband noise within a constrained space is sparse. In this paper, a hybrid muffler composed of a dissipative muffler and a reactive muffler within a constrained space is assessed. Using the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, a coupling wave equation for the perforated dissipative chamber is simplified into a four-pole matrix form. To efficiently find the optimal shape within a constrained space, a four-pole matrix system used to evaluate the acoustical performance of the sound transmission loss (STL) is evaluated using a genetic algorithm (GA). A numerical case for eliminating a broadband venting noise is also introduced. To verify the reliability of a GA optimization, optimal noise abatements for two pure tones (500 Hz and 800 Hz) are exemplified. Before the GA operation can be carried out, the accuracy of the mathematical models has been checked using experimental data. Results indicate that the maximal STL is precisely located at the desired target tone. The optimal result of case studies for eliminating broadband noise also reveals that the overall sound power level (SWL) of the hybrid muffler can be reduced from 138.9 dB(A) to 84.5 dB(A), which is superior to other mufflers (a one-chamber dissipative and a one-chamber reactive muffler). Consequently, a successful approach used for the optimal design of the hybrid mufflers within a constrained space has been demonstrated.
In this work, steady flow-field and heat transfer through a copper-water nanofluid around a rotating circular cylinder, dissipating uniform heat flux, with a constant non-dimensional rotation rate varying from 0 to 5 was investigated numerically using a finite-volume method for Reynolds numbers from the range 10–40. Furthermore, the range of nanoparticle volume fractions considered is 0–5%. The variation of the local and the average Nusselt numbers with Reynolds number, volume fractions, and rotation rate are presented for the range of conditions. The average Nusselt number is found to increase with increasing the nanoparticle volume fractions and decrease with increasing value of the rotation rate.
Tomato is an economically important vegetable crop which is attacked heavily by insect pests leading to reduction of yield and quality of the fruits. Field experiments were carried out to investigate the dissipation of methomyl (a common insecticide) used mainly on tomato fruits. LC-MS/MS coupled with the QuEChERS method were used for the determination of methomyl. The results showed that the recovery using matrix-matched standards ranged from 87.8 to 101.3%, with relative standard deviation of 2.5 to 7.5%. Kinetics equation, Log R = log R0 – 0.434 Kt, was used to calculate the rate of degradation in tomato, soil and water. Residue half-life calculated using kinetic rate ranged from 1.95 to 1.63 days in tomato and soil, respectively. From the results it was concluded that tomato fruits can be safely harvested for consumption after 15 days of application based on estimated preharvest interval (PHI). It is advisable to re-estimate the PHI regularly owing to data from the EU and Codex.
This paper presents the research studies carried out on the application of lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to computational aeroacoustics (CAA). The Navier-Stokes equation-based solver faces the difficulty of computational efficiency when it has to satisfy the high-order of accuracy and spectral resolution. LBM shows its capabilities in direct and indirect noise computations with superior space-time resolution. The combination of LBM with turbulence models also work very well for practical engineering machinery noise. The hybrid LBM decouples the discretization of physical space from the discretization of moment space, resulting in flexible mesh and adjustable time-marching. Moreover, new solving strategies and acoustic models are developed to further promote the application of LBM to CAA.
The purpose of the study was to estimate in 2012 range and degree of soil contamination due to local diesel fuel leakage spills that occurred in 1980 and from any subsequent activities in the vicinity of the scientific Polish Polar Station in Hornsund, Svalbard. The area of the study covered the immediate vicinity of station buildings including areas of the 1980’s fuel barrel storage depot and location of current fuel tanks. Results of the study were compared with a similar study performed in 1980. As of 2012, areas potentially contaminated covered 0.9 ha, which was a 50% decrease compared to 1980. The area contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons was extremely localized. Spread of petroleum hydrocarbons from 1980’s source of pollution investigated 32 years later showed that petroleum derived products were environmentally mobile. Concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons in surface soils of the unsaturated active layer above the permafrost decreased significantly mostly due to surface runoff and dispersion through ephemeral drainages. Concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons increased with depth through time in sandy soils on the flat area where the largest 1980’s fuel barrel depot was located.