Functional urban areas (FUA) have became an important component of polycentric settlement structure of all European countries. FUAs have been defined as labour market basins, composed on large city and its surrounding areas (commuting zones). The very spatial and economic concept formed the foundation of old industrial regions. Old industrialized regions with all the spatial challenges and economic problems could be also perceived as a specific type of functional urban area. In Poland, National Spatial Development Concept 2030 (NSDC 2030 2013) describes restructuring and revitalization of degraded areas and cities in terms of spatial policy measures addressed to the supporting of cohesion in problematic areas. That is why integrated revitalization programs of functional urban areas may become key instrument of regional spatial policy and urban strategies. In response to the problems of degraded land and related land-use conflicts, it can significantly help in establishing valuable solutions, as well as ensuring connections between environmental, social and economic needs in the development of functional urban areas.
The article presents the process of functional changes in the area of the Metropolis of Poznań, i.e. 22 communes belonging to the Metropolia Poznań Association. The process was examined on the basis of changes in the employment structure and spatially different tendencies and segregation in the scope of dominant functions.
The article reviews the integrated territorial investments carried out in the Opolskie Voivodeship in the financial perspective 2014-2020. The object of the analysis was the Opole Agglomeration as the only of five functional areas of the Opolskie Voivodeship, where beneficiaries of funds from European Funds are located within this investment policy development policy.
The emphasis on the territorial dimension of the public policy can be reduced to transition from a sectorial approach to an integrated territorially approach, which is based on the integration of activities of various public entities towards the territories referred not so much administratively as functionally. The functional areas (FA) is defined as spatially separated territory, which shares a common geographical differences, spatial and socio-economic conditions and the system of functional relationships and on this basis shares the uniform development objectives, ensuring effective use of its space. This understanding of the functional areas are to be the subject for intervention of the public policies. The regional development policy implemented by the voivodeship governments closely follows the findings of EU and the national strategic documents and intentionally uses a territorial approach to developmental challenges and problems. Such policy is focused (and will be focused) on the use of endogenous potential, including the territorial resources and knowledge, and will also allow for the interventions adapted to the local conditions. Thus, implementation of policy conceived in that matter is associated with geographic and thematic concentration with respect to the areas and key issues in achieving goals of the regional development. Identification of areas for which public intervention is necessary to fully exploit their endogenous potential – will be pursued with the assumption that they can have a problem character, but they can also be the potential poles of regional growth. The aim of the paper is to identify the integration processes between territorial units forming urban functional areas on regional level. In particular, it focuses on clarification the intensity of existing relationships and on the attempt to create and verify a list of criteria for delimitation of functional areas at the sub-regional level (by k-Means and Huff’s methods), assuming that each urban centre on metropolitan, national and regional level also carry-out the functions at sub-regional level.
The paper presents a synthesis of approaches to development and functioning of Functional Urban Areas. The authors present typology of such areas and determine how they facilitate the flow of various types of potentials, paying particular attention to creativity and innovations. The emphasis is put particularly on non-spatial factors of development of such areas. The process of forming the functional area basing on common strategy of development founded on various types of potentials is presented on two examples.
Local development, based on the use of endogenous potentials, requires the cooperation of muni-cipalities in urban functional areas (agglomerations). However, conducting joint activities in the area of building and running local development policy is a serious challenge. On the one hand, there is a shortage of experience in this area (not counting the short period of functio-ning municipal unions in the years 1920-1939 and intentional inter-communal relations after 1990). In addition, there are still no legal solutions needed (in addition to the act passed in 2017 for the metropolis of Silesia and Zagłębie). In recent years, however, projects of integra-ted territorial investments and other project partnerships have been implemented under the European Union and the Norwegian Financial Mechanism Programs, which result in prac-tical conclusions and legislative recommendations. The most important of them concern the introduction of a new form of partner cooperation and the adoption of a new urban code. Their quick implementation will enable more eff ective cooperation for development.
The post-mining areas due to the difficulties of those, often associated with expensive activities, usually take the form of wasteland. In contrast, unavailable, unused and alien areas the mentality of residents, are identified with empty space. The purpose of the authors was to answer the question: Are post-mining areas becoming empty spaces? Her research basis was changes in the functioning of post-mining areas and empty spaces in Katowice – a city with a long-standing mining tradition. Using GIS tools, a spatial analysis was carried out to determine the empty spaces functions and the perceiving of the post-mining areas by residents or users of a given district nearby.
A number of thorough studies characterizing national and regional innovation systems have been published over the last years but what is relatively new is the theme of local innovation systems. In the era of increasing emphasis on urban issues in the development policies of countries and organizations such as the European Union and the location of innovation in the centre of regional development debate, it is justifi ed to ask how the measures are directed to the provincial cities. The article concentrates on 5 voivodeship cities as the main centers of regions with the highest number of institutions that usually build local innovation systems, three of which are located in the less developed regions in Poland.
Estimates of the Losses Incurred by the Society Living in the Functional Urban Areas. The study presents estimates of the losses incurred by the society living in the Functional Urban Areas of regional capitals of Poland in connection with the phenomenon of urban sprawl. The estimates are presented in terms of diagnostic to 2016 and as projected reaching 2030. The results of the analysis indicate that the social losses due to the urban sprawl in Poland can be evaluate as high, as it amounts to 25.4 billion PLN per year. In the 2030 losses could reach nearly 0.5 trillion PLN, of which 264 billion PLN of losses incurred directly, and 227 billion PLN on the value of lost time.
This article presents the evolution of the approach to the indicative designation of revitalization areas in Poland at central, regional and local level. The introduction shows rational for monitoring of degradation in Polish cities, i.e. a continuous assessment of its condition, and not just the designation of areas where intervention is needed. Monitoring ensures the comparability of observations and allows to evaluate the results of undertaken measures. Without it, it is impossible to fully assess the effects of revitalization in the previous financial perspectives. The first chapter of the article outlines the requirements for determining areas for revitalization before 2013, the reasons for their adoption, and the indicators used in the delimitations at the time. The second chapter contains the results of a study carried out in the fi rst half of 2016 at the Institute of Urban Development concerning the designation of degraded areas and revitalization areas just after the entry into force of the revitalization law. The results of the study are conclusions confirming the use of cities, which first delimited the areas of revitalization from the possibility of individualizing the approach to the designation of those areas, which was introduced by the Guidelines and the law.
The article aims to present the scope of influence of Integrated Territorial Investments (ITI) on the sustainable development of urban functional areas (FUAs) in Poland. Against the background of the general principles of the implementation of the both instruments, practical aspects of the implementation of ITI in FUAs have been presented. Detailed analyses in the financial and spatial aspect were carried out using the Sustainable Development Indicators (SDI). These provided the basis for presenting the practical aspect of supporting the sustainable development of urban functional areas in the EU Cohesion Policy 2014–2020.