The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull.Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published bimonthly by the Division IV Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences, since the beginning of the existence of the PAS in 1952. The journal is peer‐reviewed and is published both in printed and electronic form. It is established for the publication of original high quality papers from multidisciplinary Engineering sciences with the following topics preferred: Artificial and Computational Intelligence, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, Civil Engineering, Control, Informatics and Robotics, Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics, Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics, Material Science and Nanotechnology, Power Systems and Power Electronics. Journal Metrics: JCR Impact Factor 2018: 1.361, 5 Year Impact Factor: 1.323, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.319, Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.005, CiteScore 2017: 1.27, The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 2017: 25 points. Abbreviations/Acronym: Journal citation: Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech., ISO: Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.-Tech. Sci., JCR Abbrev: B POL ACAD SCI-TECH Acronym in the Editorial System: BPASTS.
Prof. Anna Członkowska from the 2nd Department of Neurology at the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, a corresponding member of the Polish Academy of Sciences, discusses the definition of a stroke, new ways to help post-stroke patients recover, and reasons why time is of the essence.
“People generally associate my name with the first ever heart transplant in Poland. But I know that if I hadn’t tried to do it, then four, maybe five years later someone else would have. What I am sure of, however, is that no one else in Poland would have started working on developing an artificial heart. Had I not fought to create this device, a few hundred people would not be alive today because we wouldn’t have had ventricular assist devices which saved their lives and wellbeing.” – Zbigniew Religa, famous Polish cardiac surgeon
Designer drugs cause irreversible changes in the brain and put those who take them at an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. They can also affect one’s genetic material, says Prof. Krystyna Gołembiowska from the PAS Institute of Pharmacology.
The main aim of this paper is to present recent knowledge about the assessment and evaluation of low frequency noise and infrasound close to the threshold of hearing and the potential effects on human health. Low frequency noise generated by air flowing over a moving car with the open window is chosen as a source of noise. The noise within the interior of the car and its effects on a driver’s comfort at different velocities is analyzed. An open window at high velocity behaves as a source of specifically strong tonal low frequency noise which is annoying. The interior noise of a passenger car was measured under different conditions; while driving on normal highway and roadways. First, an octave-band analysis was used to assess the noise level and its impact on the driver’s comfort. Second, a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis was used for the detection of tonal low frequency noise. Finally, the paper suggests possibilities for scientifically assessing and evaluating low frequency noise but not only for the presented source of the sound.
Dr. Artur Binda, a bariatric surgeon from the Orłowski Independent Public Teaching Hospital in Warsaw, discusses bariatric surgery procedures, frequently the only treatment for patients with life-threatening obesity.
The experimental pharmacologist Prof. Stanisław Jerzy Czuczwar, Vice President of the Polish Academy of Sciences, tells us about how he got into medical research, about the search for new epilepsy treatments, and how pharmaceuticals are in a way akin to cell phone towers.
Food additives, especially E numbers, are widely perceived by consumers as artificial and harmful. However, the fact is that they are an essential ingredient in numerous products, many have “natural” origins and none of them pose a risk to health.
Professor Agnieszka Chacińska from the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology talks about her research on mitochondrial proteins and their association with neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic disorders.
Scientists are increasingly specializing in narrower fields, and communication is often difficult between physicists researching elementary particles and those studying semiconductors, not to mention between physicists and biologists or doctors. This makes interdisciplinary work difficult. And yet sometimes they succeed. One thread of work underway at the PAS Institute of High Pressure Physics offers a good example.
Uranium concentrations in groundwater taken from private drilled wells have been never determined in Poland, implying a lack of available data to quantify the human exposure to U through drinking water consumption, especially in rural areas influenced by mining activities. The main aim of the study was the assessment of human health risk related to the consumption of well waters containing U, collected from selected rural areas of the Lower Silesian region (Poland). The random daytime (RDT) sampling method was applied to the collection of well waters from three control study areas (CSA): Mniszków (CSA-A), Stara Kamienica/M. Kamienica/Kopaniec (CSA-B) and Kletno (CSA-C). The analyses of RDT samples were performed by validated method based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Uranium concentration ranges in well waters and the estimated geometric means for individual control study areas were: 0.005-1.03 μg/L and 0.052 μg/L (CSA-A), 0.027-10.6 μg/L and 0.40 μg/L (CSA-B), and 0.006-27.1 μg/L and 0.38 μg/L (CSA-C). The average and individual chronic daily intakes (CDI) of U by drinking water pathway (adults/children) were in the ranges of: 0.0017-0.013/0.0052-0.040 μg · kg-1 · day-1 and 0.0002-0.90/0.0005-2.71 μg · kg-1 · day-1. The average %TDI and ranges of individual %TDI (adults/children) were: 0.17%/0.52% and 0.02-3.4%/0.05-10.3% (CSA-A), 1.3%/4.0% and 0.09-35%/0.27-106% (CSA-B), and 1.3%/3.8% and 0.02-90%/0.06-271% (CSA-C). The estimated average CDI values of U through well water are significantly lower than the TDI (1 μg · kg-1 · day-1), while for individual CDI values the contribution to the TDI can reach even 90% (adults) and 271% (children), indicating essential human health risk for children consuming well water from private drilled wells located in CSA-B and CSA-C (5.3% of total number of samples collected).