For centuries, identity has been an important existential issue, because it organizes human relation with the world. Identity is not only one man's being in a biological sense, but the principle of social and cultural order. The identity is the self-awareness, the result of the social actor's involvement in a variety of network connections which are forming a human being together with the biological dimension. Thus, the identity, on the one hand, is a kind of Erikson's tradition, namely the sense of being human, on the other hand interactionist tradition, modification of identity through a process of interaction. Contemporary world, the world of confronting cultures, raises the need for analysis of identity within many cultures, which has been shaped by continuous contact with different values, norms, patterns of behaviour. Upper Silesia has been our empirical reference point for the discussion on social (regional) identity. Identity of Upper Silesia is the result of a long and complicated history and present day. This identity is created by Polish, German, Czech and Jewish a cultural elements.
An aim of this article was to analyze and interpret multifaceted semantic of motives for lying in the novel Women’s Lies by Lyudmila Ulitskaya mainly on the basis of the text’s content as well as related to it preceded annotations, essayistic and journalistic utterances of an actress. We declare that the “laboratory analyze” of women’s lies in its various scenes makes a leading opinion and basic motive of the novel. At the beginning of the conclusion we are concentrating on the author`s definition of lie, so we can later refer to mythological-historical-literary roots. In the context of above mentioned facts, it is interesting that Ulitskaya divides lie on masculine and feminine. Ulitskaya, in her typical way, referring to cultural-religious archetypes and symbols, indicates the roots of masculine lie pertaining even to the Old Testament, as contrary to “pleasant feminine lie”. In this regard, the mythological characters of Odysseus and Penelope are also recognized as representatives. After all, in the content of the analyzed piece are only presented various examples of female lies, and, in our opinion, exposed as an element of the third plane, which unites natural sciences and literature.
The aim of the article is to discuss Ingmar Bergman’s film Persona in a philosophical context and analyze the problem of the identity of the main characters. During the analysis, elements of existential thought and Sartre's philosophy were used. The psychological and philosophical layer of the film combines the common theme of broadly understood existence. The focus was on the identity problems of the main characters of the film and the linguistic layer in the context of the interpersonal conflict.
This paper brings up elementary problems related to the creation of friendly public spaces in residential complexes as the main places of social integration. Contemporary social transformations are reflected in a new, intensified usage of public spaces which – offering more and more possibilities of satisfying human needs in the field of social contact, knowledge, recreation, stimulation etc. – provoke people and their activities to transfer “life” from a private space to a public space.
The article contains reflections on the role of reflexivity in contemporary education. The most important is to emphasize the importance of a pragmatic reflexivity in constructing the cultural identity of a young man. The majority of the text consists of references to the thoughts of Hans Georg Gadamer in the context of pragmatics of reflexivity. In conclusion, the author proposes a pedagogical definition of reflexivity.
The Integrated Psychosocial Model of Criminal Social Identity (IPM-CSI) explains the underlying reasons, i.e. risk factors, for the development of criminal social identity (CSI). Empirical research surrounding these risk factors is inconsistent in the measures and procedures used and the risk factors were mostly considered in isolation from one another. The main purpose of the paper was to review existing empirical studies elucidating correlates of CSI incorporated in the IPM-CSI and indicate further direction for research. A search in PubMed, PsychInfo, ERIC, Google Scholar, and the journal Child Development and Adolescent Studies was performed. Eleven studies exploring the correlates of CSI were identified and discussed herein. Studies indicated that there is potential for further expansion of the IPM-CSI to consider the consequences of CSI. Based on the present study results, a set of recommendations are provided for future research.
The aim of the study was to examine identity statuses in various life domains and the relationship between identity and well-being. We adopted the three-dimensional model of identity (Crocetti et al., 2008), including: in-depth exploration, commitment, and reconsideration of commitment. Moreover, in accordance with domain-specific approach (Goossens, 2001), we sought to empirically derive identity statuses in various life domains. The participants included 835 emerging adults (Mage = 21.81, SD = 2.33). We examined eight domains previously identified in qualitative research: personality characteristics, past experiences, family, friends and acquaintances, worldview, hobbies and interests, aims and plans for the future, and occupation. To measure three identity processes, we used a modified version of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (Crocetti et al., 2008) and to measure well-being we used the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (Keyes, 2013). Results indicate that, although the statuses identified in previous research were, to a large extent, replicated (except moratorium), people were classified in different statuses in different domains; thus, we conclude that talking about statuses should be limited to a given domain. Well-being was the highest in achievement statuses and the lowest in diffusion, but only in two examined domains: personality characteristics and past experience.
The article include the consideration of social functions of higher education for indigenous minorities living in the Arctic. Particular emphasis was placed on reconstructing educational practices and the language policy that is implemented toward indigenous minorities in Alaska, Canadian Arctic, Greenland, northern regions of Scandinavia and Northern Russia. An attempt was made at examining the relationship between higher education, language policy, and the development of ethnic identity.
Nowadays, it's hard to stay togdifficult to remain Yourself. How we behave in critical situations and if fight for our identity, our specificity, depends on us. How to live, we would not seem to us that we live in? The issues taken in this article are related to the specificity of highlander, and our choices which play an important role in my life. The first part of the article describes the basic concepts, including specificity, being yourself, singularity. In the next part a signpost were shown, which „saves” described highlander specificity. The aim of the article is to show the (frequently forged) highland value in aspect of creating ourself, our attitude towards life, which involve a lot of positives. I assert that the specificity of the highland is the value of itself creation.
The aim of the study is to compare the development of self-esteem and identity integration over time among people with disability and without it (data from norm groups), including people with a spinal cord injury as well as with disabilities caused by other reasons. The research examined self-esteem and identity integration of individuals with disability with regard to disability duration, gender, age, correlation analysis of self-esteem and identity integration. The sample consisted of 133 individuals with acquired disabilities. The study used the Polish adaptations of Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Multidimensional Self-Assessment Inventory. Additionally, the respondents with disability completed a form with questions about their age, gender, disability duration and its cause. The outcomes of SES and MSEI modules were checked against the norm groups. The results demonstrated that self-esteem and identity integration do not vary with regard to gender, age or acquired disability conditions. The differences between subjects with disability and the normalized group have proven to be negligible. However, the factor that turned out to be highly significant was the disability duration. Differences have been observed among groups with disability lasting up to 4 months, from 4 months to 2 years, from 2 to 6 years and over 6 years. To sum up, self-esteem and identity integration correlation proved to be high and positive. These findings suggested that the higher the self-esteem, the more integrated the identity, regardless of either the disability type or its degree. The level of self-esteem is subject to differentiation primarily due to disability duration.
The article presents two dimensions of the relationship between cinema and Polish independence. The first part was devoted to the situation of Polish cinema after 1918. I describe the film market, the political situation, relationship between the state and cinematography, films that were then created and their impact on national identity. Then I focus on films in which independence has become a movie theme. I divide them into three periods: until 1939, the People's Republic of Poland and after 1989. I draw attention to their political and historical contexts, functions and film form, and I discuss the meaning and interpretation of each films.
The author presents the search for the identity of individuals and families displaced after World War II from Vilnius to Gdańsk in the context of the urban community integration. Gdańsk being a city where the population after the war was almost fully replaced, becomes in this sense a kind of laboratory of social integration processes. The text serves as an introduction to the topic and is based on the results of the pilot qualitative research conducted within the The Common Room Gdańsk” (2013–2015) project coordinated by prof. M. Mendel. The analyses are a contribution to the reflection on identity determinants of integration processes within the urban community, also in relation to contemporary times. When discussing the issues of identity, the author points to the importance of the turning point which was the end of World War II, and the experience of expatriation in the spatial and socio-cultural context.
The article presents youth expectations towards: – school, presented by the competences of the eighteen-year-old, – the world, reflecting the concept of one’s own identity, – oneself expressing the condition measured by satisfaction with oneself. The summary tries to answer the question: can the expectations be fulfilled?
The research task of the essay is to answer the question of what is the face of the nation in the ethnic enclaves situated at the peripheries of national states. The subject of the analyses is the local population of the village Jaworzynka. In 1922, the settlement Herczawa was founded as a local unit independent from Jaworzynka. Since then Herczawa began to belong to Czechoslovakia. The state-owned status of Jaworzynka, which started to be a part of the Republic of Poland, was recognized after the World War I. The author takes into account the longue durre of folk and national culture generated in the Silesian Beskidy in the second half of the 18th century. The national culture is the main term applied to the investigations of the borderland regions. According to the ethno-symbolic approaches (Anthony D. Smith) and culturalism methods in sociology (Antonina Kłoskowska), the author analyses in his research: 1) language, 2) religion, 3) folkways and mores 4) arts, 5) local knowledge and literature. These elements delineate the sphere of symbolic culture. Based on the common folk culture, two national cultures have been formed nowadays – the Polish and Czech ones. Both Polish and Czech Census Bureau data and objective elements of national culture discussed in the essay indicate the process of national revival. The local people of Jaworzynka identify themselves as Poles and the population of Herczawa define themselves as Czechs. The content and the form of the local culture are visible in Jaworzyna, but they seem to be latent or diminishing in Herczawa.
Taking debates on the historiography of Quebec as the base of his considerations, the Author presents various reflections and postulates concerning comparative historiography. In particular His attention is drawn to the various types and aspects of historical identity. The awareness of those is necessary for the correct comparative analysis.
Multidimensional, variety of saving memories ways in landscape is visible in creation of commemorative spaces. These meaning is strictly connected with the most important events and persons in history of the country. Authors of article in their research are concentrated on commemorative space with monuments example in Poland and the world presence in landscape design meaning. They are announced by landscape analysis methods to recognition of structure, meaning and phenomena of chosen objects in genius loci categories. In Study of Conditions and Directions of Space Development Capital City of Warsaw is found the record that “commemorative resource” is not enough examined and protected. The aim of elaboration is indication of tendencies in aspects of location, space relations and meanings of memory places.
Formation the local identity in the “thematic” Rural Renewal, The article aims to determine the main conditions for the development of rural thematic areas in the context of Rural Renewal. Against this background, the authors attempt to explain the mechanisms governing the discussed process and their effects. In view of the above, the focus was on presenting mechanisms for the development of processes that lead to the flowering of this idea (an anatomy of success – the case of the village of Sierakowo Sławieńskie) and those that slow down or completely limit this development (anatomy of failure – the case of the village of Lubcza).
Modern cities are increasingly promoting their own individual brands to gain a competitive advantage. 28 Polish cities, after joining the Cittaslow international network of cities, can additionally use their native brand in their activities. The aim of the author was to answer the question: should cities only use an individual brand, or maybe they can support these activities with a common brand strategy. The growth of interest in individual brands of 28 cities belonging to the Cittaslow network has been evaluated, also their popularity, popularity of the native brand on the Facebook, and the use of the Cittaslow brand by cities on their websites were analysed. It was noticed that not all cities use the Cittaslow logo. But most cities in Cittaslow publish a link to the network and brand information on their websites. The native brand Cittaslow is in Poland at the positioning stage but probably its popularity will grow as the benefits from using it begin to be noticed.
Identity in a housing environment is one of its resources as valuable as its water, air, flora and fauna. The readability of identity should be the basic factor of the quality of architecture and landscape architecture recognizable as a significant resource. It is an important factor which influences the living standard of people who inhabit a given space from a psychological, social and cultural point of view. In order to care for identity, we must be aware of it, of its role and significance in our lives and residence in a given environment. Man must understand the phenomenon of the meaning of life with respect to its space as his place in the world. When we understand the all-embracing rhythm and taste of the life of a place of residence, we will comprehend life itself.
The motto of the article signals that ‘the great cultural change’ on the turn of the 20th century is going to be the context for reflections on the identity of pedagogy. The problem of identity has always been controversial; however, it is particularly visible in the circumstances of change. In the article I attempt to weaken the argumentation used by the advocates of marginalising that problem in an academic discourse in order to remind statements of leaders of Polish pedagogy encouraging undertaking the problems of the identity of pedagogy. I also try to convince the reader that it is possible to form important questions about the new connection between pedagogy and educational practice in the context of a discourse about the identity of pedagogy.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the mechanisms of classification and discursive representation of the poor and their everyday life, that result in dehumanization and orientalization of their image. Research data (press articles) was analyzed in the framework of theories such as the Bourdieu’s theory of symbolic power, post-colonial studies and discourse theory. The representation of everyday life was analyzed using the theory of real and symbolic localization. The use of the abovementioned theories enabled the author to describe the processes in which the poor are discursively reconstructed as Others. The identity of the “Other” is (falsely) attributed to the poor by localizing them, within the constructed representations of the places they inhabit
In wireless mobile networks, a client can move between different locations while staying connected to the network and access the remote server over the mobile networks by using their mobile de- vices at anytime and anywhere. However, the wireless network is more prone to some security attacks, as it does not have the ingrained physical security like wired networks. Thus, the client authentication is required while accessing the remote server through wireless network. Based on elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC) and identity-based cryptography (IBC), Debiao et al. proposed an ID-based client authentication with key agreement scheme to reduce the computation and communication loads on the mobile devices. The scheme is suitable for mobile client-server environments, is secure against different attacks and provides mutual authentication with session key agreement between a client and the remote server as they claimed. Unfotunately, this paper demonstrates that Debiao et al.’s scheme is vulnerable some cryptographic attacks, and proposed an improved ID-based client authentication with key agreement scheme using ECC. The proposed scheme is secure based on Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem (ECDLP) and Computational Diffie-Helmann Problem (CDHP). The detail analysis shows that our scheme overcomes the drawbacks of Debiao et al.’s scheme and achieves more functionality for the client authentication with lesser computational cost than other schemes.
This article examines the process of the judicial Europeanization of the Polish Constitution. In Poland the judicial method of Europeanizing the Constitution is currently the primary way of adjusting constitutional norms to requirements resulting from EU law. The phenomenon of re-interpretation of constitutional provisions in light of the new and changing realities is a characteristic feature of contemporary constitutionalism. It has been a long time since most national constitutions have undergone significant textual changes. In Poland, the scope of judicial Europeanization of the Constitution is connected, to a great extent, with the inflexible procedure required for constitutional amendments. In this situation, these so-called “silent changes” of constitutional norms are the easiest and fastest way of reacting to requirements stemming from Poland’s EU membership. In the Polish case not only have the norms regarding the political system of the state changed, but also constitutional standards relating to the protection of fundamental rights and freedoms have undergone the process of the Europeanization. To some extent, these changes relate to procedural norms as well.