The assessment of a rock’s behaviour around excavations and the effectiveness of its reinforcement in underground ore mines is dependent on the performance of the rock-bolt and rock-mass interaction, which can be estimated on the basis of appropriately designed measurements. Based on the background of various measurements solutions described in the literature, concerning rock bolt monitoring methods, the authors proposed a new, original device for mass measurements in mine conditions. After examining the advantages and disadvantages of existing constructions, the article presents the essence, principle of operation and method of measuring anchor load in an underground excavation with the a instrument, indicator WK-2/8. The prototype has been carefully researched and successfully tested in a full-scale laboratory environment. This instrument, also referred to as a load indicator or force pad, does not require electrical power and allows for relatively accurate (with a resolution of 10-14kN, up to about 90kN loading capacity) and a remote reading of the axle loading of the anchor (AGH patent) by any person present in the specified area. The device can be installed in mining excavations under loading conditions. The relatively low cost of a measuring instrument, practically used as an additional washer, as well as an easy assembly method, makes it universally applicable in mines where anchoring is used as a means of strengthening the rock.
The research paper presents the results of the dynamic analysis of an existing bar dome subjected to wind loads. The calculation model of the structure was constructed using the finite element method. The dome was subjected to the standard wind pressure, assuming that it is operates in a harmonic manner. The numerical analyses were performed with the application of Autodesk Robot and MES3D. The analysis focused on the impact of selected factors such as the frequency of forcing, wind gustiness coefficient and structural damping on the behaviour of structures.
The paper presents an analysis of the influence of elevated temperature on thin-walled purlins restrained by sheeting. In the first part of the study the bearing capacity of purlins cooperating with sheeting is examined in normal and elevated temperature based on European Standards. Next, special attention is paid to creating a numerical FEM model of the restrained purlins in Abaqus program taking into account different materials properties with respect to temperature increase.
Probabilistic analysis of a space truss is presented in the paper. Reliability of such a structure is sensitive to geometrical and material imperfections. The objective of this paper is to present a variant of the point estimate method (PEM) to determine mean values and standard deviations of limit loads of engineering structures. The main advantage presented by this method is the small number of sample calculations required to obtain estimators of investigated parameters. Thus the method is straightforward, requiring only preliminaries of probability theory. This approach is illustrated by limit state analysis of a space truss, considering geometric and material imperfections. The calculations were performed for different random models, so the influence of random parameters on the limit load of the truss can be determined. A realistic snow load was imposed.
The objective of this paper is to present a probabilistic method of analyzing the combinations of snow and wind loads using meteorological data and to determine their combination factors. Calculations are based on data measured at twelve Polish meteorological stations operated by the Institute for Meteorology and Water Management. Data provided are from the years 1966 - 2010. Five combinations of snow load and 10-minute mean wind velocity pressure have been considered. Gumbel probability distribution has been used to fit the empirical distributions of the data. As a result, the interdependence between wind velocity pressure and snow load on the ground for a return period of 50 years has been provided, and the values of the combination factors for snow loads and wind actions are proposed.
In this paper, flysch is presented as a representative material of a wide section of the Carpathian Mountains, with some areas in Poland highlighted. The geological structure of this area is complex due to the alternating layers of blocky rock masses and soil (Vessia et al., 2017). Such a complex pattern is seen in some Alpine flysch slopes, such as the Ingelsberg landslide area (Romeo et al., 2015). Many authors are monitored, predicted landslides (Allasia et al., 2013; Bertacchini et al., 2009; Casagli et al., 2010) by sophisticated sensors. The rock-soil flysch successions have become intensively fissured as a result of their geological history, weathering (precipitation and snowmelt), and long-term water retention, especially on the surface layers. These complex materials are characterised by heterogeneous lithologies, whose mechanical properties are largely uncertain. These geological structures have also been confirmed by monitoring and control studies performed on a large number of landslides (Bednarczyk, 2014). One of the most striking phenomena is the sudden decrease in the strength parameters in the studied rocks in the direction parallel to the layers due to watering. The process is made possible by heterogeneous fractured strong rock layers with high permeability coefficients for water. This study precisely describes the phenomena occurring at the contact area between the component layers of flysch under the wet conditions of a weak plane. An elastic-plastic analysis method that considers the developed strength model at the surfaces of the contact areas (Biernatowski & Pula, 1988; Pula, 1997) has been used to estimate the load capacity for piles working under a horizontal load. The piles are part of a reliability chain (Pula, 1997) in a given construction and are the first element of concern for monitoring (Muszynski & Rybak, 2017). A particular device intended to study the dependence of the shear stress on a fixed failure surface in a controlled consolidation condition was utilized. The study was conducted for a wide range of displacements and for different values of stabilized vertical stresses of consolidation. The complexity of the processes occurring in the shear zone, presented as a detailed study of the material crack mechanics, is highlighted. The laboratory results were used to construct the mechanical model of the slip surface between the soil and rock with the description supported by a neural network (NN) approximation. The artificial NN was created as a multi-layered, easy to use approach for interpreting results and for quick reconstruction of approximated values useful for the calculations presented in laterally loaded piles. For the calculations, long, sheared strips of material were considered in a semi-analytical procedure to solve a differential equation of stability. The calculations are intended to reveal the safety indexes for a wide range of boundary tasks as the most significant indicator for design decisions.
Theoretical and experimental research indicates that radial loads have a significant influence on the value of belt-on-idler rolling resistances. Computational models discussed in literature use the notion of unit rolling resistance, i.e. rolling resistance per unit length of the idler. The total value of the rolling resistance of belt on a single idler is determined by integrating unit rolling resistance with respect to the length of the contact zone between the belt and the idler. This procedure requires the knowledge of normal load distribution along the contact zone between the belt and the idler. Loads acting on the idler set have been the object of both theoretical analyses and laboratory tests. Literature mentions several models which describe the distribution of normal loads along the contact zone between the belt and the idler set (Krause & Hettler, 1974; Lodewijks, 1996; Gładysiewicz, 2003; Jennings, 2014). Numerous experimental tests (Gładysiewicz & Kisielewski, 2017; Król, 2017; Król & Zombroń, 2012) demonstrated that the resultant normal loads acting on idlers are approximate to the loads calculated in theoretical models. If the resultant normal load is known, it is possible to assume the distribution of loads acting along the contact zone between the belt and the idler. This paper analyzes various hypothetical load distributions calculated for both the center idler roll and for the side idler roll. It also presents the results of calculations of belt rolling resistances for the analyzed distributions. In addition, it presents the results of calculations with allowance for load distribution along the generating line of the idler.
To this day, most of the papers related to hybrid joints were focused on single and double lap joints in which shear deformation and degradation was the dominant phenomenon. However, in real constructions, complex state of loads can be created by: a) torsion with shear, b) bending with shear, c) torsion with tensile. Analytical and numerical computation for simple mechanical joints is known, however, the introduction of an adhesive layer to this joint makes the load transferred both through: (1) the adhesive and (2) mechanical fasteners. There is also an interaction between the amount and stiffness of mechanical fasteners and the strength of the adhesive layer. The paper presents the results of numerical calculations for the bending with shear type of load for the hybrid structural joint and corresponding simple joints by: (1) pure adhesion and (2) rivets with different quantity maintaining the same cross-sectional area. A total of 9 simulations were performed for: (1) 4 types of pure rivets connections, (2) pure adhesive joint and (3) 4 kinds of hybrid joints. The surface-based cohesive behavior was used for creation of the adhesive layer, whereas the rivets were modelled by connector type fasteners, which simplify complexity of the numerical model. The use of connectors allowed for effort assessment taking into account damage in both types of connections. Application of connector elements can be useful for larger structures modelling, e.g. aircraft fuselage, where the number of mechanical joints is significant and complex load conditions occur.
Th This paper presents a simple method of evaluating the load resistance and stiffness of corrugatedsheets locally loaded with suspended technical fixtures. As a part of this research, parametricnumerical analyses of corrugated sheets of different span, and with differently located concentratedforces, were carried out. Stress distributions in the individual folds in the elastic range and inthe ultimate limit state were identified. On their basis, equivalent concentrated load factors forthe individual folds in the sheet were determined. The load factors enable analyses of the loadresistance and stiffness of corrugated sheets loaded with concentrated forces, which can be helpfulin design practice.
The growth in the system load accompanied by an increase of power loss in the distribution system. Distributed generation (DG) is an important identity in the electric power sector that substantially overcomes power loss and voltage drop problems when it is coordinated with a location and size properly. In this study, the DG integration into the network is optimally distributed by considering the load conditions in different load models used to surmount the impact of load growth. There are five load models tested namely constant, residential, industrial, commercial and mixed loads. The growth of the electrical load is modeled for the base year up to the fifth year as a short-term plan. Minimization of system power loss is taken as the main objective function considering voltage limits. Determination of the location and size of DG is optimally done by using the breeder genetic algorithm (BGA). The proposed studies were applied to the IEEE 30 radial distribution system with single and multiple placement DG scenarios. The results indicated that installing an optimal location and size DG could have a strong potential to reduce power loss and to secure future energy demand of load models. Also, commercial load requires the largest DG active injection power to maintain the voltage value within tolerable limits up to five years.
The objective of the submitted paper is to analyze the influence of the load on the calibration of micro-hardness and hardness testers. The results were validated by Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA), Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Z-score. The relationship between the load and micro-hardness in calibration of micro-hardness testers cannot be explained by Kick's Law (Meyer's index "n" is different from 2). The conditions of Kick's Law are satisfied at macro-hardness calibration, the values of "n" are close to 2, regardless of the applied load. The apparent micro-hardness increases with the increase of the load up to 30 g; the reverse indentation size effect (ISE) behavior is typical for this interval of the loads. The influence of the load on the measured micro-hardness is statistically significant for majority of calibrations.
The paper presents a new method for measuring the strain and load of wire ropes guide using fiber optic sensors with Bragg gratings. Its principle consists in simultaneous fiber optic measurement of longitudinal strain of the rope and transverse strain of the bolt fixing the rope. The tensometric force transducers which have been used so far were only able to determine the load in the head securing the rope through an indirect measurement using a special strain insert. They required calibration, compensation of temperature changes, as well as periodic checking and calibration. The head fastening the rope required significant design changes. Measurement based on fiber optic sensors does not have these drawbacks and is characterized by a much higher accuracy and safety of measurements, because the working medium is light. The fastening head does not change. The measurement of the rope load may be based on the change of strain value or indirectly by means of measuring the deflection of the bolt fixing the rope holder. The proposed solution consists in placing the optical fiber with Bragg grating inside the bolt. It enables continuous measurements with a frequency of 2 kHz. A special test bench was built at the Research and Supervisory Centre of Underground Mining. Testing on guide ropes was carried out in a mining hoist in the Piast mine.
The paper is devoted to a simply supported rectangular plate subjected to two types of compressive edge loads. The first load is applied uniformly along a part of two opposite edges, the second one has a non-uniform distribution (defined by a half wave of the sink function). The critical load value of the plate is located between the values for uniformly distributed and concentrated load. Critical value of thickness of the plate is determined. The problem is solved by the orthogonalization method, and the results are compared with those of numerical analysis done by means of the finite element method.
Trace metal composition of snowpack, snow-melt filter residues and top-soils were determined along transects through industrial towns in the Usa River Basin: Inta, Usinsk and Vorkuta. Elevated concentrations of deposition elements and pH in snow and soils associated with alkaline coal ash within 25-40 km of Vorkuta and Inta were found. Atmospheric deposition in the vicinity of Vorkuta and Inta, added significantly to the soil contaminant loading as a result of ash fallout. The element concentrations in soils within 20-30 km of Vorkuta do not reflect current deposition rates, but instead, reflect an historical pollution legacy, when coal mining activity peaked in the 1960s. There is little evidence of anthropogenic metal deposition around the gas and oil town of Usinsk.
The cohesion and internal friction angle were characterized as quadratic functions of strain and were assumed to follow the Mohr-Coulomb criterion after the yield of peak strength. These mechanical parameters and their variations in post-peak softening stage can be exactly ascertained through the simultaneous solution based on the data points of stress-strain curves of triaxial compression tests. Taking the influence of the fault into account, the variation of strata pressure and roadway convergence with coal advancement, the temporal and spatial distribution of axial bolt load were numerically simulated by FLAC3D (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua) using the ascertained post-peak mechanical parameters according to the cohesion weakening and friction strengthening model. The change mechanism of axial load of single rock bolt as abutment pressure changes was analyzed, through the comparison analysis with the results of axial bolt load by field measurements at a coal mine face. The research results show that the simulated results such as the period of main roof weighting, temporal and spatial distribution of axial bolt load are in accordance with field measurement results, so the validity of the numerical model is testified. In front of the working face, the front abutment pressure increases first and then decreases, finally tends to be stable. A corresponding correlation exists between the variation of axial bolt load and rock deformation along the bolt body. When encountered by a fault, the maximum abutment pressure, the influential range of mining disturbance and the roadway convergence between roof and floor before the working face are all increased. In the roadways along the gob, axial bolt loads on the side of the working face decrease, while the other side one increases after the collapse of the roof. As superficial surrounding rock mass is damaged, the anchoring force of rock bolts will transfer to inner rock mass for balancing the tensile load of the bolts.
The mining of hard coal deposits at increasingly greater depth leads to an increase in hazards related to the loss of stability of steel arch supports as a result of excessive static and dynamic loads. Camber beam reinforcement via rockbolting is often utilised in order to improve the stability of the yielding steel arch support. This article presents the results of comparative bench tests of the ŁP10/V36-type steel arch support, tested with and without reinforcement by means of self-drilling bolts with drunken R25 threads, using short joists formed from V32 and V25 sections. It also presents the results of comparative tests of the ŁPP10/4/V29/I-type steel arch support, tested with and without reinforcement by means of rock bolts with trapezoidal Tr22/13 threads, using short joists formed from V25 sections. The obtained test results, in the form of load courses and work values of the steel arch and mixed (arches and rock bolts) support systems, demonstrate that the utilisation of mixed support may significantly improve the stability of workings, particularly immediately after they are driven. A mixed support system quickly achieves its maximum load capacity together with a significant increase in its work value. It may thus prevent the stratification of the rocks surrounding the working, and therefore better utilise the self-supporting capacity of the rock mass. As evidenced by the test results, the mixed support work may be as much as 3.5 times as great compared to the steel arch support at the beginning of the height reduction process initiated by loading – i.e. until its reduction by a presupposed value of 100 mm.
Time-dependent behavior of rock mass is important for long-term stability analysis in rock engineering. Extensive studies have been carried out on the creep properties and rheological models for variable kinds of rocks, however, the effects of initial damage state on the time-dependent behavior of rock has not yet been taken into consideration. In the present study, the authors proposed a creep test scheme with controlled initial damage to investigate the influence of initial damage on the time-dependent behavior of sandstone. In the test scheme, the initial states of damage were first determined via unloading the specimen from various stresses. Then, the creep test was conducted under different stress levels with specific initial damage. The experimental results show that there is a stress threshold for the initial damage to influence the behavior of the rock in the uniaxial compressive creep tests, which is the stress threshold of dilatancy of rock. When the creep stress is less than the stress threshold, the effect of the initial damage seems to be insignificant. However, if the creep stress is higher than the stress threshold, the initial damage has an important influence on the time-dependent deformation, especially the lateral and volumetric deformation. Moreover, the initial damage also has great influence on the creep failure stress and long-term strength, i.e., higher initial damage leading to lower creep failure stress and long-term strength. The experimental results can provide valuable data for the construction of a creep damage model and long-term stability analysis for rock engineering.
This paper proposes a fair calculation approach for the cost and emission of generators. Generators also have reactive power requirements along with the active power demand to meet up the total power demand. In this paper, firstly the reactive power is calculated considering the random active power operating points on the capability curve of a generator then the cost for reactive power generation as well as emission are calculated. In order to develop the mathematical function for the reactive power cost and reactive power emission, a curve-fitting technique is applied, which gives the generalised reactive power cost and reactive power emission functions. At the end, the problem is formulated as a multiobjective problem, considering conflicting objectives such as combined active- reactive economic dispatch and combined active-reactive emission dispatch. The problem is converted from the multiobjective load dispatch problem (MOLDP) into a scalar problem, using the weighting method and the best compromised solution has been calculated using the particle swarmoptimization (PSO) technique.Afuzzy cardinal method has been applied to choose the best solution. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of developed functions the proposed method is applied on a 3 generator unit system and a 10 generator unit system, the results obtained show its validity and effectiveness.
High distribution system power-losses are predominantly due to lack of investments in R&D for improving the efficiency of the system and improper planning during installation. Outcomes of this are un-designed extensions of the distributing power lines, the burden on the system components like transformers and overhead (OH) lines/conductors and deficient reactive power supply leading to drop in a system voltage. Distributed generation affects the line power flow and voltage levels on the system equipment. These impacts of distributed generation (DG) may be to improve system efficiency or reduce it depending on the operating environment/conditions of the distribution system and allocation of capacitors. For this purpose, allocating of distributed generation optimally for a given radial distribution system can be useful for the system outlining and improve efficiency. In this paper, a new method is used for optimally allocating the DG units in the radial distribution system to curtail distribution system losses and improve voltage profile. Also, the variation in active power load in the system is considered for effective utilization of DG units. To evidence the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out in MATLAB software on the IEEE-33 bus system and Vastare practical 116 bus system.
With the rise of coal mine underground reservoir engineering in the Shendong Mining Area, the space time dynamic evolution prediction of storage coefficient is becoming one of the critical technical problems for long-term reservoir operation. This coefficient directly determines the storage capacity and the comprehensive benefits of the operation of a coal mine underground reservoir. To this end, the proposed underground reservoir in Daliuta coal mine (No. 22616 working face) is selected in this study for the development and application of an experimental device to measure the storage coefficient. Rock and coal fragments from similar materials are prepared, which are filled and loaded according to the caving rock nature as well as the lumpiness and accumulation mode characteristics pertaining to No. 22616 working face. Subsequently, the measured storage coefficient under circulating water injection conditions revealed a four-dimensional spatial and temporal pattern. It followed the law of storage coefficient under joint interaction of water-rock and stress. The results showed that, prior to the experiment, rock and coal fragments made from similar materials had good water resistance when the paraffin content was set at 8%. The three stress zones were defined based on a theoretical analysis, which were applied on the corresponding loads. During the experiments, significant regional differences were found in the top surface with persisting subsidence of each stress loading zone. Hence, compared with its initial state, the maximum subsidence in the stress stability zone, the stress recovery zone, and the low-stress zone was 7.89, 5.8, and 1.83 mm, respectively. While the storage capacity and the storage coefficient gradually decreased, the former ranged from 0.2429 to 0.2397 m3, and the latter ranged from 0.270 to 0.266. The experimental results are verified by drainage engineering tests in the Shendong Mining Area. In essence, the storage coefficient had remarkable spatial distribution characteristics and a time-varying effect. In space, the storage coefficient increased with height along the vertical direction of the coal mine underground reservoir. However, it decreased with the distance from the boundary of the dam body in the horizontal direction. With time, the storage coefficient decreased dynamically. This study provides a new way of predicting the storage coefficient of a coal mine underground reservoir.
In the paper the new constructions of robots, modern technologies of painting and newest methods of paint robots programming were presented. Fanuc P-250iA robot using to painting was characterized. The general characteristic of robot with controller R-30iA was demonstrated. The technology and the paint equipment applied to paint frames and load-carrying boxes was shown. The possibilities of simulation software Roboguide were presented exactly, which is a tool for robot environment simulation on a computer PC. Roboguide system application can reduce the programming time of robots and necessary programs optimization conducted before implementation to production.
A new method measuring of mass in electronic system of scales has been described. The main element of this system is inductive measuring load cell, which was compared with strain gauge load cell. The aim of the paper is described advantages of the inductive measuring system of mass and explain some main problems of this system. Digital correction of the mechanical errors of the beam like: hysteresis, creep material of the beam under constant load, influence of ambient temperature was described.
On-load tap changers (OLTC) are some of the main transformer elements that make voltage adjustment in a power network possible. Their failures often cause shutdowns of distribution transformers. The paper presents research work aimed at the assessment of the technical condition of OLTCs by the acoustic emission method (EA). This method makes the OLTC diagnosis possible without the need of disconnecting the transformer from the system. The measurements were taken in laboratory conditions. The influence on the operation non-concurrence of the power tap changer contacts on the AE registered signals has been investigated. The signals registered were subjected to analyses in the time and time-frequency domains. The result analysis in the time domain was carried out using the Hilbert transform and calculating characteristic times for the particular runs. A short-time Fourier transform was used for the assessment of results in the time-frequency domain.