Today’s cities tend to “pour out” beyond their administrative boundaries. This phenomenon is related to the settlement of people “from the city” in neighboring municipalities, or taking up jobs in cities by people living in neighboring municipalities. This has been recognized in the European Union, which has introduced appropriate legal instruments for cohesion policy. Integrated Territorial Investments were introduced to the EU cohesion policy for the fi rst time in the 2014-2020 fi nancial perspective. Their goal was to intensify cooperation between cities and their functional areas. Unfortunately, the emerging information about diffi culties in implementing ITIs often become the basis for considering this idea ineff ective. The purpose of the work is qualitative and quantitative verifi cation of the operation of ITU based on selected data, so that it is possible to answer the question about the validity of the existence of this instrument.
Local service centre, defined as multi-functional public space providing access to everyday services, promoting social integration and building local identity, is an essential hub in the urban service sector. From the public policy perspective appropriate location and furnishing of local service centres is a basic condition for shaping territorial cohesion. This paper synthesises the to-date knowledge on mechanisms determining the development of service sector in cities, including new phenomena such as decentralisation of urban functions, urban shrinkage, remote services provision or commercialisation of lifestyle. Critical literature review enables the confrontation of various research perspectives and leads to distinguishing key factors affecting the development of urban local service centres in the first half of 21st century and defining the current challenges for public policy.
Presented paper consists of two parts: (1) experiences of spatial policy formulation on EU level and (2) preparation of new EU Territorial Agenda until 2030. In first part were elaborated milestones of previous activities on spatial policy in EU: European Spatial Development Perspective from 1999 and Territorial Agenda approved by member states in Godollo in 2011. Important element of paper was also description of changing background of spatial policy, primarily related to Lisbon Treaty introducing territorial cohesion. In XXI century crucial role was played by three generations of ESPON programme, embracing spatial pattern of European space, but also forecasting future of European territory until 2050. Catalysing role was played by the World Bank and OECD activities. In second part evidence concerning new Territorial Agenda was presented. Issue of spatial patterns of mega-trends implies priorities of new Territorial Agenda. Using territorial potentials and overcoming territorial barriers gives additional impetus to EU development. Problems which should be tackled are: risk of fragmentation, growing interdependencies between places and functional mismatch. For Poland involvement in activities leading to next Territorial Agenda of EU is of key importance.
Strategic Choices of EU cohesion policy post 2020 in light of the European Commission programming documents. The aim of this study is to evaluate the conceptualization of European cohesion policy in the next programming period of the European Union and in the European financial perspective 2020+. Special attention has been paid to documents of European Commission, which is the leading institution in the dialogue of various stakeholders on this subject. It has been also described the unique significance of European cohesion policy for the socio-economic development of Poland (after the accession in 2004 and in the coming years). Against this background the most important assumptions of Poland's negotiating position has been determined as well as the necessary changes in the regional policy model in Poland.Strategic Choices of EU cohesion policy post 2020 in light of the European Commission programming documents. The aim of this study is to evaluate the conceptualization of European cohesion policy in the next programming period of the European Union and in the European financial perspective 2020+. Special attention has been paid to documents of European Commission, which is the leading institution in the dialogue of various stakeholders on this subject. It has been also described the unique significance of European cohesion policy for the socio-economic development of Poland (after the accession in 2004 and in the coming years). Against this background the most important assumptions of Poland's negotiating position has been determined as well as the necessary changes in the regional policy model in Poland.
In the 2014–2020 programming period, two new tools were introduced by the EU cohesion policy, namely Smart Specialisation (SS) and Integrated Territorial Investments (ITI). Their implementation aims at contributing on the one hand to activating and strengthening endogenic potentials, including those based on knowledge and innovation, and on the other hand to territorialisation of intervention for the purpose of obtaining competitive advantages or regions. The tools are based on two concepts of the development policy: smart specialisation and place-based and territorial approach to development. The article presents the rationale and prospective impact of the implementation of the tools on development programming of selected regions of Poland. Detailed analyses cover the provisions of the ITI Strategy of the Functional Urban Areas (FUAs) of Poznań (Wielkopolskie Voivodeship), Subregion Centralny (Śląskie Voivodeship), and Lublin (Lubelskie Voivodeship), as well as regional and national operational programmes in terms of potential contribution of the implementation of ITI to the strengthening of regional SS in some of the Polish region. The analyses performed for the three groups of Thematic Objectives (TO) of ESIF 2014–2020 (corresponding with 3 pillars of the Europe 2020 Strategy), i.e. ‘smart’ – TO 1–3; ‘sustainable’ – TO 4–7; and ‘inclusive’ – TO 8–10, show that the ‘sustainable’ group (in majority represented by companies from sections F, H) refers to infrastructure projects, often of a transport network; the ‘inclusive’ group is ascribed to companies from sections Q and P to generally ‘soft’ projects related to the development of social services, and ’smart‘ is related to sections M, F, J. Only in the case of 8% of projects (out of 78 analysed) it was stipulated that preferences would be given to the existing or newly established companies the profile of activity of which corresponds to regional SS. Such projects deal with the support for companies in the scope of business incubators and expansion of vocational education infrastructure in terms of adjustment to the needs of key sectors selected in RIS3 strategies of particular regions. In all of the analysed FUAs, ITI measures support regional SS in the framework of TO 3 and TO 10. The projects will be primarily implemented by companies from PCA sections M, F and P. The proposed methodology gives prospects to the analysis of future impact of interventions on the growth of the smart specialisation potential of the analysed FUAs PC.
In this paper experiences and manifestations of territorialisation of European cohesion policy, with special concentration on Poland, who is the biggest benefi ciary of that EU policy, were presented. Regional level is having strongest impact on success of territorialisation of public policies, but general conditions are shaped by central level, and also local level role is increasing, including cities and urban policy. Later an analysis of possibilities and conditions of EU cohesion policy territorialisation was elaborated, evaluating favourable and unfavourable factors. Conclusions are rather pessimistic, because there are many restrictions and preliminary preconditions of effi cient and eff ective decentralisation of EU structural intervention.
The article aims to present the scope of influence of Integrated Territorial Investments (ITI) on the sustainable development of urban functional areas (FUAs) in Poland. Against the background of the general principles of the implementation of the both instruments, practical aspects of the implementation of ITI in FUAs have been presented. Detailed analyses in the financial and spatial aspect were carried out using the Sustainable Development Indicators (SDI). These provided the basis for presenting the practical aspect of supporting the sustainable development of urban functional areas in the EU Cohesion Policy 2014–2020.