Antarctic krill carbohydrate content was followed during 1983—84 Eighth Polish Antarctic Expedition. The Admiralty Bay (King George Island) was th area of study. The following average values of three estimated fractions were obtained: 3.77 +- 1.51%, 0.47 +- 0.34% and 3.30 +- 1.33% for total, TCA-soluble and TCA-insoluble carbohydrates, respectively. Percentage contribution of the estimated fractions to dry weight varied seasonally (1.48—7.41%, 0.15—1.83%, and 1.28—6.28%, respectively). The carbohydrate content showed a clearcut cycle of changes over the calender year, with a minimum in autumn-winter and a maximum in spring-summer.
The musculocutaneous nerve (C5–C7) is a terminal branch of the lateral cord of the brachial plexus and provides motor innervation to the anterior compartment of arm muscles. Both the musculocutaneous and median nerve may show numerous anatomical variations. Keeping in mind possible aberrations in the course of the upper limb nerves may increase the safety and success rate of surgical procedures. The presented report is a detailed anatomical study of the fusion between the median and musculocutaneous nerve, supplemented by intraneural fascicular dissection. In the presented case, the musculocutaneous nerve was not found in its typical location in the axillary cavity and upper arm during the preliminary assessment. However, a careful intraneural fascicular dissection revealed that musculocutaneous nerve was fused with the median nerve and with its lateral root; Those nerves were surrounded by a common epineurium, however they were separable. The muscular branch to the biceps brachii muscle arose from the trunk ( fascicular bundle) dissected out from the median nerve and corresponding to the musculocutaneous nerve. Such variation may be of utmost clinical importance, especially during reconstructions of the brachial plexus or its branches.
The abducens nerve is characterized by a long intracranial course and complex topographical relationships. Anatomical knowledge may help to understand both the etiology and clinical symptoms of abducens nerve palsy. Typically, the single trunk of the abducens nerve travels on both sides. However, occasionally different variants of unilateral or bilateral duplications of the abducens nerve may be observed. Th e presented paper is a detailed anatomical description of bilateral duplication of the abducens nerve, with atypical appearance of the nerve in the cavernous sinus and normal distribution within the lateral rectus muscle on both sides of one cadaver. On the right side both trunks of the abducens nerve fused within the subarachnoid space and pierced the dura mater together. On the left side both trunks of the duplicated abducens nerve pierced the dura mater separately, entered the petrous apex separately and fused just below the petrosphenoidal ligament. Within the cavernous sinus the nerve divided once again into two filaments, which reunited into one trunk aft er crossing the horizontal segment of the intracavernous part of internal carotid artery. Th e orbital segments of the abducens nerve showed a typical course on both sides. Duplication of the abducens nerve is anatomical variation which should be taken into account during diagnostic and surgical procedures performed within the petroclival region and cavernous sinus.
Buckling of the stiffened flange of a thin-walled member is reduced to the buckling analysis of the cantilever plate, elastically restrained against rotation, with the free edge stiffener, which is susceptible to deflection.Longitudinal stress variation is taken into account using a linear function and a 2nd degree parabola. Deflection functions for the plate and the stiffener, adopted in the study, made it possible to model boundary conditions and different buckling modes at the occurrence of longitudinal stress variation. Graphs of buckling coefficients are determined for different load distributions as a function of the elastic restraint coefficient and geometric details of the stiffener. Exemplary buckling modes are presented.
Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared OP-FTIR spectrometers are commonly used for the measurement of atmospheric pollutants and of gases in industrial processes. Spectral interpretation for the determination of gas concentrations is based on the HITRAN database line-by-line modeling method. This article describes algorithms used to model gas spectra and to determine gas concentration under variable temperatures. Integration of individual rotational lines has been used to reduce the impact of spectrometer functions on the comparison of both measured and synthetic modeled spectra. Carbon monoxide was used as an example. A new algorithm for gas concentration retrieval consisting of two ensemble methods is proposed. The first method uses an ensemble of local models based on linear and non-linear PLS (partial least square) regression algorithms, while the second is an ensemble of a calibration set built for different temperatures. It is possible to combine these methods to decrease the number of regression models in the first ensemble. These individual models are appropriate for specific measurement conditions specified by the ensemble of the calibration set. Model selection is based on comparison of gas spectra with values determined from each local model
This article proposes that the ’imāla phenomenon was an innovation in the Najd region. The non-’imāla form was the traditional form because it is the vowel production in the available Ancient North Arabian data. The article will separate the use of ’imāla as an assimilatory vowel from the Najdi non-assimilatory production by analyzing the testimonial data in the traditional books of grammar. Finally, the article will use the available genealogical literature to establish an approximate chronology for the innovation and to justify the spread of the innovation among the pre-Islamic tribes.
A product is referred to as robust when its performance is consistent. In current product robustness paradigms, robustness is the responsibility of engineering design. Drawings and 3D models should be released to manufacturing after applying all the possible robust design principles. But there are no methods referred for manufacturing to carry and improve product robustness after the design freeze. This paper proposes a process of inducing product robustness at all stages of product development from design release to the start of mass production. A manufacturing strategy of absorbing all obvious variations and an approach of turning variations to cancel one another are defined. Verified the application feasibility and established the robustness quantification method at each stage. The theoretical and actual sensitivity of different parameters is identified as indicators. Theoretical and actual performance variation and accuracy of estimation are established as robustness metric. Manufacturing plan alignment to design, complimenting the design and process sensitivities, countering process mean shifts with tool deviations, higher adjustable assembly tools are enablers to achieve product robustness.
The aim of this article is to present and review the research methods employed in Laura Gago Gómez’s recent study, Aproximación a la situación sociolingüística de Tánger-Arcila: variación léxica y grafemática (2018). Moreover, this article intends to evaluate the possibility of applying the methods of Hispanic research on lexical availability to Middle Arabic texts, after considering what kind of Middle Arabic texts should be taken into account for this purpose.
In this paper, the recent ice regime variations in the Kara Sea have been described and quantified based on the high-resolution remote sensing database from 2003 to 2017. In general, the Kara Sea is fully covered with thicker sea ice in winter, but sea ice cover is continuously declining during the summer. The year 2003 was the year with the most severe ice conditions, while 2012 and 2016 were the least severe. The extensive sea ice begins to break up before May and becomes completely frozen at the end of December again. The duration of ice melting is approximately twice than that of the freezing. Since 2007, the minimum ice coverage has always been below 5%, resulting in wide open-waters in summer. Furthermore, the relevant local driving factors of external atmospheric forcing on ice conditions have been quantitatively calculated and analyzed. Winter accumulated surface air temperature has been playing a primary role on the ice concentration and thickness condition in winter and determining ice coverage index in the following melt-freeze stage. Correlation coefficients between winter accumulated temperature and ice thickness anomaly index, the ice coverage anomaly index, duration of melt-freeze stage can approach -0.72, -0.83 and 0.80, respectively. In summer, meridional winds contribute closely to summer ice coverage anomaly index, with correlation coefficient exceeding 0.80 since 2007 and 0.90 since 2010.
The study aimed to examine the use of Geomagnetic Anomaly Detection (GAD) to locate the buried ferromagnetic pipeline defects without exposing them. However, the accuracy of GAD is limited by the background noise. In the present work, we propose an approximate entropy noise suppression (AENS) method based on Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) for detection of pipeline defects. The proposed method is capable of reconstructing the magnetic field signals and extracting weak anomaly signals that are submerged in the background noise, which was employed to construct an effective detector of anomalous signals. The internal parameters of VMD were optimized by the Scale–Space algorithm, and their anti-noise performance was compared. The results show that the proposed method can remove the background noise in high-noise background geomagnetic field environments. Experiments were carried out in our laboratory and evaluation results of inspection data were analysed; the feasibility of GAD is validated when used in the application to detection of buried pipeline defects.
Although Syrian high-yielding wheat cultivars grown under Mediterranean conditions include acceptable levels of resistance to biotic constraints, little is known about their susceptibility to Fusarium head blight (FHB), a harmful disease of wheat cultivation worldwide. The capacity of 16 fungal isolates of four FHB species to confer the disease on spikes and spikelets of six widely grown old and modern Syrian durum and bread wheat cultivars with known in vitro quantitative resistance to FHB was evaluated. Quantitative traits were visually assessed using spray and point inoculations for determining disease development rates, disease incidence (DI) and disease severity (DS) under controlled conditions. Differences in pathogenicity and susceptibility among wheat cultivars were observed, emphasizing the need for breeders to include aggressive isolates or a mixture of isolates representative of the FHB diversity in their screenings for selection of disease resistant cultivars. Bread wheat cultivars showed lower levels of spike and spikelet damage than durum cultivars regardless of the date of cultivar release. Overall, the six wheat cultivars expressed acceptable resistance levels to initial fungal infection and fungal spread. Quantitative traits showed significant correlation with previous standardized area under disease progress curve (AUDPCstandard) data generated in vitro. Thus, the predictive ability of AUDPCstandard appears to be crucial in assessing pathogenicity and resistance in adult wheat plants under controlled conditions. While in the Mediterranean countries the risk of disease is progressively increasing, the preliminary data in this report adds to our knowledge about four FHB species pathogenicity on a Syrian scale, where the environment is quite similar to some Mediterranean wheat growing areas, and show that Syrian cultivars could be new resistant donors with favorable agronomical characteristics in FHB-wheat breeding programs.
Different chromosomal forms of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. (Poaceae), including diploids (2n=26), hypotriploid (2n=36–38) and a genotype with an occasional occurrence of B chromosome (2n=26+0-1B) that originated from southern marginal populations (Argentine Islands region, maritime Antarctic) were studied using molecular cytogenetic, morphometric and biochemical methods. FISH analysis revealed variations in the number of rDNA sites between the diploid and hypotriploid plants. The genome size varied among plants with a different chromosome number and was on average 10.88 pg/2C for diploids and 16.46 pg/2C for hypotriploid. The mean values of leaf length of plants grown in vitro varied within a range of 5.23–9.56 cm. The total phenolic content ranged from 51.10 to 105.40 mg/g, and the total flavonoid content ranged from 1.22 to 4.67 mg/g. The amount of phenolic compounds did not differ significantly between the genotypes, while a variation in the flavonoid content was observed for L59 and DAR12. The diploids did not differ significantly among each other in terms of the number of rDNA loci, but differed slightly in their genome size. The individuals of DAR12 carrying B chromosome were similar to other diploids in terms of their genome size, but statistically differed in leaf length. The hypotriploid had both a greater number of rDNA sites and a larger genome size. No statistical correlations were observed between the genome size and leaf length or genome size and accumulation of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The results of this study suggest that D. antarctica plants from the southern edge of the range are characterised by the heterogeneity of the studied parameters.
In this paper, we establish variation of constant formulas for both Caputo and Riemann- Liouville fractional difference equations. The main technique is the Z -transform. As an application, we prove a lower bound on the separation between two different solutions of a class of nonlinear scalar fractional difference equations.
Reconciliation between two copper ore mines transferred ore from one mine to another for processing in enrichment plants generated the need to regularly study the amount and composition of the ore on the conveyor connecting these two mines. To ensure the objectivity of the study, taking composite samples and their analysis was entrusted to a specialized outside laboratory. However, the managing staff of both mines still have doubts whether sampling results reflect correctly content of transported ore especially when the fed is highly variable. In order to investigate how the relatively low sampling rate affects the accuracy and precision of the measurement, the article investigates the hypothetical situation on the linking conveyor with the ore having extremely differentiated mineralization: 80% of almost barren rock (below 0.7% Cu) and 20% of the richly mineralized shale (around 10% Cu). Such ore occurs in some areas of the mine, from which it is fed onto a connecting conveyor. Through simulation techniques it was examined how the frequency of sampling can influence the distribution of the pooled sample results. It turned out that for 16 randomly selected samples in the following 15 minutes time intervals of a working shift, the spread of results around the simulated value is very large. A satisfactory accuracy level for the estimations of mean Cu content in the transported ore is achieved when the samples are collected at 30-second intervals. Only with sampling frequency close to on-line scanner parameters the probability of obtaining estimations with deviation exceeding 10% drops to the level of 2%. In the case of extremely differentiated ore doubts about confidence in the described measurements are fully confirmed, because with over 50% probability a single measurement could be deviated by 50% up and down from the true value.
This communication reports detection of somaclonal variation among tissue culture-raised plants of Amorphophallus rivieri Durieu, an economically important crop in China, with high content of glucomannan in its corms. A population of regenerated plants was obtained from a single donor plant of A. rivieri via corm organogenesis, and 28 plants were randomly selected as a representative sample and subjected to analysis of somaclonal variation using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Of the 26 ISSR primers screened, 13 gave distinct and reproducible band patterns, yielding 131 bands with an average of 10.1 bands per primer. Ten primers were polymorphic and generated 16 polymorphic bands with 12.2% mean polymorphism. Based on the ISSR data from the regenerated plants and the donor plant, Jaccard's similarity coefficients were calculated; they ranged from 0.961 to 1.000 with a mean of 0.982. A dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (Upgma); it showed that a majority of regenerated plants (including the donor plant) clustered closely, with a mean similarity coefficient of 0.987. Low somaclonal variation observed in the regenerated plants indicates that rapid propagation of A. rivieri via corm organogenesis is a practicable method with a low risk of genetic instability.
The present report describes the new occurrence of Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) in cabbage, bean and Malva neglecta plants in Iran. In this study, sequence analyses of a partial RNA dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) and complete movement protein (MP) and the coat protein (CP) nucleotide sequences of three new ToMV isolates collected from major crop fields in Iran revealed low genetic variation of RdRp gene compared to the CP and MP genes. The different topologies of the phylogenetic trees constructed, using available open reading frame (ORF1), ORF2 and ORF3 sequences from ToMV isolates, indicated different evolutionary constraints in these genomic regions. Statistical analysis also revealed that with the exception of CP other tested ToMV genes were under negative selection and the RdRp gene was under the strongest constraints. According to the phylogenetic tree it can be inferred from the nucleotide sequences of the complete CP and MP genes, that isolates from Iran and Egypt formed separate groups, irrespective of host origin. However, isolates clustered into groups with correlation to geographic origin but not the host. Analysis of the Ks *, Z* and Snn values also indicated genetic differentiation between ToMV populations. The Tajima’s D, Fu and Li’s statistical values were significantly negative for the RdRp gene of the Asian population which suggests the sudden expansion of ToMV in Asia. Taken together, the results indicate that negative selection and genetic drift were important evolutionary factors driving the genetic diversification of ToMV.
Thin-walled bars currently applied in metal construction engineering belong to a group of members, the cross-section resistance of which is affected by the phenomena of local or distortional stability loss. This results from the fact that the cross-section of such a bar consists of slender-plate elements. The study presents the method of calculating the resistance of the cross-section susceptible to local buckling which is based on the loss of stability of the weakest plate (wall). The "Critical Plate" (CP) was identified by comparing critical stress in cross-section component plates under a given stress condition. Then, the CP showing the lowest critical stress was modelled, depending on boundary conditions, as an internal or cantilever element elastically restrained in the restraining plate (RP). Longitudinal stress distribution was accounted for by means of a constant, linear or non-linear (acc. the second degree parabola) function. For the critical buckling stress, as calculated above, the local critical resistance of the cross-section was determined, which sets a limit on the validity of the Vlasov theory. In order to determine the design ultimate resistance of the cross-section, the effective width theory was applied, while taking into consideration the assumptions specified in the study. The application of the Critical Plate Method (CPM) was presented in the examples. Analytical calculation results were compared with selected experimental findings. lt was demonstrated that taking into consideration the CP elastic restraint and longitudinal stress variation results in a more accurate representation of thin-walled element behaviour in the engineering computational model
Sensitivity analysis of the dynamic response of both the designed and the actual models of a slewing superstructure with two masts to the variation of the counterweight mass and the degree of accuracy of the approximation polynomials of the digging resistance was conducted in the paper. Spatial reduced dynamic models of the bucket wheel excavator SchRs 1600 were used as a basis for the presented investigations. Based on the comparative analysis of the calculation results, the following conclusions were drawn: (a) mass of the counterweight has a significantly higher influence on the maximum intensities of accelerations of the referent points than on the spectrum of natural frequencies, (b) the accuracy of approximations of the digging resistance and the maximum values of accelerations differ by an order of magnitude, for the approximation trigonometric polynomial of the same number of harmonics.
Currently there is a constant development in the field of aluminium alloys engineering. This results from, i.a., better understanding of the mechanisms that direct strengthening of these alloys and the role of microalloying. Now it is microalloying in aluminum alloys that is receiving a lot of attention. It affects substantially the macro- and microstructure and kinetics of phase transformation influencing the properties during production and its exploitation. 7xxx series aluminum alloys, based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu system, are high-strength alloys, moreover, the presence of Zr and Sr further increases their strength and improves resistance to cracking. This study aims to present the changes of the properties, depending on the alloy chemical composition and the macro- and microstructure. Therefore, the characteristics in the field of hardness, tensile strength, yield strength and elongation are shown on selected examples. Observations were made on ingot samples obtained by semi-continuous casting, in the homogenized state. Samples were prepared from aluminum alloys in accordance with PN-EN 573-3: 2013. The advantage of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys are undoubtedly good strength, Light-weight and resistance to corrosion. As widening of the already published studies it is sought to demonstrate the repeatability of the physical parameters in the whole volume of the sample.
Th e forearm is a body region of numerous anatomical variations. Due to its favorable anatomy fl exor digitorum superfi cialis muscle (FDS) is commonly used in tendon transfer surgeries. In this study a unique combination of abnormalities was found in a single forearm: the fl exor digitorum superfi cialis muscle penetrated by the median nerve, one of the fl exor digitorum superfi cialis tendons early division and absence of the palmaris longus muscle. Described variation potentially may lead to the clinical manifestation of the median nerve compression and should be also considered during FDS surgery.