The most important item of city activity is to define development directions. Because of strategic character of this issue, a very important thing is inhabitants’ contribution in decision making. Cooperation between them and city authorities should lead to positive changes in the city and inhabitants’ life quality. They learn social engagement when taking part in determining of city development directions. Showing their creativity and building social relationships in city area. The aim of the paper was determining problems of participation in the describing of city development directions process. In the research there were used several methods: literature studies, logical construction, deduction and observations.
Monorchism in children can be caused by congenital and acquired conditions, and can potentially infl uence the hormonal and reproductive function of an individual in the long term. Depending on the etiology, diff erent approaches to the solitary testis have been suggested; however, studies on this topic are scarce. Prevention of anorchia is the main goal in the management of a child with monarchism. The risk of bilateral testicular loss must be weighed against the risk of performing surgery on a healthy gonad. Little is known about the long-term consequences of the various methods for fixation of the testis. This paper provides an up-to-date summary of the current literature on congenital and acquired monarchism in childhood.