Nauki Techniczne

Metrology and Measurement Systems

Zawartość

Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2021 | vol. 28 | No 3 |

Abstrakt

Surface roughness has an important influence on the service performance and life of parts. Areal surface roughness has the advantage of accurately and comprehensively characterizing surface microtopography. Understanding the relationship and distinction between profile and areal surface roughness is conducive to deepening the study of areal surface roughness and improving its application. In this paper, the concepts, development, and applications of surface roughness in the profile and the areal are summarized from the aspect of evaluation parameters. The relationships and differences between surface roughness in the profile and the areal are analyzed for each aspect, and future development trends are identified.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Baofeng He
1
Siyuan Ding
1
Zhaoyao Shi
1

  1. Beijing University of Technology, Faculty of Materials and Manufacturing, Beijing Engineering Research Center of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, 100 Ping Le Yuan, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100124, China
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Abstrakt

Geographic trajectory of a pipeline is important information for pipeline maintenance and leak detection. Although accurate trajectory of a ground pipeline usually can be directly measured by using global positioning system technology, it is much difficult to determine trajectory for an underground pipeline where global positioning system signal cannot be received. In this paper, a new method to determine trajectory for an underground pipeline by using a pipeline inspection robot is proposed. The robot is equipped with a low-cost inertial measurement unit and odometers. The kinematic model, measurement model and error propagation model are established for estimating position, velocity and attitude of the robot. The path reconstruction algorithm for the robot is proposed to improve accuracy of trajectory determination based on pipeline features. The experiment is given to illustrate that the position errors of the proposed method are less than 40% of that of the standard extended Kalman filter.
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Bibliografia

[1] Liu, Z.,&Kleiner,Y. (2013). State of the art reviewof the inspection technologies for condition assessment of water pipes. Measurement, 46(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2012.05.032
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[3] Zhang, T.,Wang, X., Chen, Y., Shuai, Y., Ullah, Z., Ju, H., & Zhao, Y. (2019). Geomagnetic detection method for pipeline defects based on ceemdan and WEP-TEO. Metrology and Measurement Systems, 26(2), 345–361. https://doi.org/10.24425/mms.2019.128363
[4] Ju, H.,Wang, X., Zhang, T., Zhao, Y., & Ullah, Z. (2019). Defect recognition of buried pipeline based on approximate entropy and variational mode decomposition. Metrology and Measurement Systems, 26(4), 735–755. https://doi.org/10.24425/mms.2019.129587
[5] Piao, G., Guo, J., Hu, T.,&Deng, Y. (2019). High-sensitivity real-time tracking system for high-speed pipeline inspection gauge. Sensors, 19(3), 731. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030731
[6] De Araújo, R. P., De Freitas, V. C. G., De Lima, G. F., Salazar, A. O., Neto, A. D. D., & Maitelli, A. L. (2018). Pipeline inspection gauge’s velocity simulation based on pressure differential using artificial neural networks. Sensors, 18(9), 3072. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18093072
[7] Chowdhury, M. S., & Abdel-Hafez, M. F. (2016). Pipeline inspection gauge position estimation using inertial measurement unit, odometer, and a set of reference stations. ASCE-ASME Journal of Risk and Uncertainty in Engineering Systems Part B: Mechanical Engineering, 2(2), 021001-1-10. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4030945
[8] Coramik, M., & Ege, Y. (2017). Discontinuity inspection in pipelines: a comparison review. Measurement, 111, 359–373. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.058
[9] Idroas, M., Abd Aziz, M. F. A., Zakaria, Z., & Ibrahim, M. N. (2019). Imaging of pipeline irregularities using a PIG system based on reflection mode ultrasonic sensors. International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, 20(2), 212–223. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJOGCT.2019.097449
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[13] Zhao, Y. (2015) Cubature plus extended hybrid Kalman filtering method and its application in PPP/IMU tightly coupled navigation systems. IEEE Sensors Journal, 15(12), 6973–6985. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2015.2469105
[14] Guan, L., Cong, X., Zhang, Q., Liu, F., Gao, Y., An, W., & Noureldin, A. (2020). A comprehensive review of micro-inertial measurement unit based intelligent PIG multi-sensor fusion technologies for small-diameter pipeline surveying. Micromachines, 11(9), 840. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11090840
[15] Wang, L., Wang, W., Zhang, Q., & Gao, P. (2014). Self-calibration method based on navigation in high-precision inertial navigation system with fiber optic gyro. Optical Engineering, 53(6), 064103. https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.6.064103
[16] Usarek, Z., &Warnke, K. (2017). Inspection of gas pipelines using magnetic flux leakage technology. Advances in Materials Science, 17(3), 37–45. https://doi.org/10.1515/adms-2017-0014
[17] Sasani, S., Asgari, J., & Amiri-Simkooei, A. R. (2016). Improving MEMS-IMU/GPS integrated systems for land vehicle navigation applications. GPS solutions, 20(1), 89–100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10291-015-0471-3
[18] Hyun, D., Yang, H. S., Park, H. S., & Kim, H. J. (2010). Dead-reckoning sensor system and tracking algorithm for 3-D pipeline mapping. Mechatronics, 20(2), 213–223. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.mechatronics.2009.11.009
[19] Lee, D. H., Moon, H., Koo, J. C., & Choi, H. R. (2013). Map building method for urban gas pipelines based on landmark detection. International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems, 11(1), 127–135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12555-012-0049-6
[20] Li, T., Zhang, H., Niu, X., & Gao, Z. (2017). Tightly-coupled integration of multi-GNSS singlefrequency RTK and MEMS-IMU for enhanced positioning performance. Sensors, 17(11), 2462. https://doi.org/10.3390/s17112462
[21] Sahli, H., & El-Sheimy, N. (2016). A novel method to enhance pipeline trajectory determination using pipeline junctions. Sensors, 16(4), 567. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16040567
[22] Guan, L., Cong, X., Sun, Y., Gao, Y., Iqbal, U., & Noureldin, A. (2017). Enhanced MEMS SINS aided pipeline surveying system by pipeline junction detection in small diameter pipeline, IFACPapersOnLine, 50(1), 3560–3565. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifacol.2017.08.962
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[24] Noureldin, A., Karamat, T. B., & Georgy, J. (2012). Fundamentals of Inertial Navigation, Satellite- Based Positioning and their Integration. Springer Science & Business Media. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/978-3-642-30466-8
[25] Xu, L., Li, X. R., Duan, Z., & Lan, J. (2013). Modeling and state estimation for dynamic systems with linear equality constraints. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 61(11), 2927–939. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSP.2013.2255045
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Shuo Zhang
1
Stevan Dubljevic
1

  1. University of Alberta, Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering, T6G 2R3 Edmonton, AB, Canada
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Abstrakt

In this paper, we present an experimental setup developed for the calibration of dynamic force transducers which is based on the drop mass method. The traceability to SI units is realized through well-known mass characteristics and a reference shock accelerometer attached to that mass. Two approaches are proposed to analyse dynamic force employing a drop mass system. One approach depends on the inertial force of a falling mass while the other deals with the work-energy principle. Results of both approaches are then compared to the response of a statically calibrated force transducer. It is shown that the obtained maximum relative deviations between the response of force transducer and the first approach results are 1% while those of the second approach are 2%.
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Bibliografia

[1] Fujii, Y., Isobe, D., Saito, S., Fujimoto, H., & Miki, Y. (2000). A method for determining the impact force in crash testing. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 14(6), 959–965. https://doi.org/10.1006/mssp.1999.1272
[2] Fujii, Y. (2003). A method for calibrating force transducers against oscillation force. Measurement Science and Technology, 14(8), 1259–1264. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/14/8/310
[3] Hjelmgren, J. (2002). Dynamic Measurement of Force – A Literature Survey (SP Report 2002:34). SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute SP Measurement Technology.
[4] Jun, Y., Yiqing, C., Xuan, H., & Xiao, Y. (2017). Impulse force calibration with dropped weight and laser vibrometer. IMEKO 23rd TC3, 13th TC5 and 4th TC22 International Conference, Finland, 19. https://www.imeko.org/publications/tc3-2017/IMEKO-TC3-2017-030.pdf
[5] Kobusch, M., Link, A., Buss, A., & Bruns, T. (2007). Comparison of shock and sine force calibration methods. IMEKO 20th TC3, 3rd TC16 and 1st TC22 International Conference, Maxico. https://www.imeko.org/publications/tc3-2007/IMEKO-TC3-2007-007u.pdf
[6] Satria, E., Takita, A., Nasbey, H., Prayogi, I. A., Hendro, H., Djamal, M., & Fujii, Y. (2018). New technique for dynamic calibration of a force transducer using a drop ball tester. Measurement Science and Technology, 29(12). https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6501/aaeb71
[7] Schlegel, C., Kieckenap, G., Glöckner, B., Buß, A., & Kumme, R. (2012). Traceable periodic force calibration. Metrologia, 49(3), 224–235. https://doi.org/10.1088/0026-1394/49/3/224
[8] Sivaselvan, M. V., Reinhorn, A. M., Shao, X., & Weinreber, S. (2008). Dynamic force control with hydraulic actuators using added compliance and displacement compensation. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 37(15), 1785–1800. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.837
[9] Stanford, A. L., & Tanner, J. M. (1985). Work, Power, and Energy. In Physics for Students of Science and Engineering (pp. 109–144). Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-663380-1.50008-2
[10] Vlajic, N., & Chijioke, A. (2017). Traceable calibration and demonstration of a portable dynamic force transfer standard. Metrologia, 54(4), S83–S98. https://doi.org/10.1088/1681-7575/aa75da
[11] Yang, Y., Zhao, Y., & Kang, D. (2016). Integration on acceleration signals by adjusting with envelopes. Journal of Measurements in Engineering, 4(2), 117–121. https://www.jvejournals.com/ article/16965/pdf
[12] Zhang, L., & Kumme, R. (2003). Investigation of interferometric methods for dynamic force measurement. In XVII IMEKO World Congress, Metrology in the 3rd Millennium, Croatia, 315–318.
[13] Zhang, L.,Wang, Y., & Zhang, L. (2010). Investigation of calibrating force transducer using sinusoidal force. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1253, 395–401. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3455481
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Shaker A. Gelany
1
Gouda M. Mahmoud
1

  1. National Institute of Standards (NIS), Tersa St, El-Haram, PO Box 136, Code 12211, Giza, Egypt
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Abstrakt

A dynamic weighing system or a checkweigher is an automated inspection system that measures the weight of objects while transferring them between processes. In our previous study, we developed a new electromagnetic force compensation (EMFC) weighing cell using magnetic springs and air bearings. This weighing cell is free from flexure hinges which are vulnerable to shock and fatigue and also eliminates the resonance characteristics and implements a very low stiffness of only a few N/m due to the nature of the Halbach array magnetic spring. In this study, we implemented a checkweigher with the weighing cell including a loading and unloading conveyor to evaluate its dynamic weighing performances. The magnetic springs are optimized and re-designed to compensate for the weight of a weighing conveyor on the weighing cell. The checkweigher has a weighing repeatability of 23 mg (1σ) in static situation. Since there is no lowfrequency resonance in our checkweigher that influences the dynamic weighing signal, we could measure the weight by using only a notch filter at high conveyor speeds. To determine the effective measurement time, a dynamic weighing process model is used. Finally, the proposed checkweigher meets Class XIII of OIML R51-1 of verification scale e 0.5 g at a conveyor speed of up to 2.7 m/s.
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Bibliografia

[1] Schwartz, R. (2000). Automatic weighing-principles, applications and developments. Proceedings of XVI IMEKO, Austria, 259–267.
[2] Yamazaki, T., & Ono, T. (2007). Dynamic problems in measurement of mass-related quantities. Proceedings of the SICE Annual Conference, Japan, 1183–1188. https://doi.org/10.1109/SICE.2007.4421164.
[3] Mettler-Toledo GmbH. (2021, June 13). https://www.mt.com/.
[4] Yamakawa, Y., Yamazaki, T., Tamura, J., & Tanaka, O. (2009). Dynamic behaviors of a checkweigher with electromagnetic force compensation. Proceedings of the XIX IMEKO, Portugal, 208– 211. https://www.imeko.org/publications/wc-2009/IMEKO-WC-2009-TC3-184.pdf.
[5] Yamakawa, Y., & Yamazaki, T. (2010). Dynamic behaviors of a checkweigher with electromagnetic force compensation (2nd report). Proceedings of the XIX IMEKO, Portugal. https://www.imeko.org/publications/tc3-2010/IMEKO-TC3-2010-001.pdf.
[6] Yamakawa, Y., & Yamazaki, T. (2013). Simplified dynamic model for high-speed checkweigher. International Journal of Modern Physics. 24, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1142/S2010194513600367.
[7] Yamakawa, Y., & Yamazaki, T. (2015). Modeling and control for checkweigher on floor vibration. Proceedings of the XXI IMEKO, Czech Republic. https://www.imeko.org/IMEKO-WC-2015- TC3-093.pdf.
[8] Yamazaki, T., Sakurai, Y., Ohnishi, H., Kobayashi, M., & Kurosu, S. (2002). Continuous mass measurement in checkweighers and conveyor belt scales. Proceedings of the SICE Annual Conference, 470–474. https://doi.org/10.1109/SICE.2002.1195446.
[9] Sun, B., Teng, Z., Hu, Q., Lin, H., & Tang, S. (2020). Periodic noise rejection of checkweigher based on digital multiple notch filter. IEEE Sensors Journal, 20(13), 7226–7234. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2020.2978232.
[10] Piskorowski, J., & Barcinski, T. (2008). Dynamic compensation of load cell response: A timevarying approach. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 22(7), 1694–1704. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymssp.2008.01.001.
[11] Pietrzak, P., Meller, M., & Niedzwiecki, M. (2014). Dynamic mass measurement in checkweighers using a discrete time-variant low-pass filter. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 48(1–2), 67–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymssp.2014.02.013.
[12] Umemoto, T., Sasamoto, Y., Adachi, M., Kagawa, Y. (2008). Improvement of accuracy for continuous mass measurement in checkweighers with an adaptive notch filter. Proceedings of the SICE Annual Conference, 1031–1035. https://doi.org/10.1109/SICE.2008.4654807.
[13] Boschetti, G., Caracciolo, R., Richiedei, D., & Trevisani, A. (2013). Model-based dynamic compensation of load cell response in weighing machines affected by environmental vibrations. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 34(1–2), 116–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymssp.2012.07.010.
[14] Sun, B., Teng, Z., Hu, Q., Tang, S., Qiu, W., & Lin, H. (2020). A novel LMS-based SANC for conveyor belt-type checkweigher. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 70, 1– 10. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIM.2020.3019618.
[15] Niedzwiecki, M., Meller, M., & Pietrzak, P. (2016). System identification -based approach to dynamic weighing revisited. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 80, 582–599. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymssp.2016.04.007.
[16] Choi, I. M., Choi, D. J., & Kim, S. H. (2001). The modelling and design of a mechanism for micro-force measurement. Measurement Science and Technology, 12(8), 1270–1278. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/12/8/339.
[17] Hilbrunner, F., Weis, H., Fröhlich, T., & Jäger, G. (2010). Comparison of different load changers for EMFC-balances. Proceedings of the IMEKO TC3, TC5, and TC22 Conferences Metrology in Modern Context, Thailand. https://www.imeko.org/publications/tc3-2010/IMEKO-TC3-2010-016.pdf.
[18] Yoon, K. T., Park, S. R., & Choi, Y. M. (2020). Electromagnetic force compensation weighing cell with magnetic springs and air bearings. Measurement Science and Technology, 32(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6501/abae8e.
[19] Zhang, H., Kou, B., Jin, Y., & Zhang, H. (2014). Modeling and analysis of a new cylindrical magnetic levitation gravity compensator with low stiffness for the 6-DOF fine stage. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 62(6), 3629–3639. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2014.2365754.
[20] Choi, Y. M., & Gweon, D. G. (2010). A high-precision dual-servo stage using Halbach linear active magnetic bearings. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 16(5), 925–931. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMECH.2010.2056694.
[21] Lijesh, K. P., & Hirani, H. (2015). Design and development of Halbach electromagnet for active magnet bearing. Progress in Electromagnetics Research C, 56, 173–181. https://doi.org/10.2528/PIERC15011411.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Hyun-Ho Lee
1
Kyung-Taek Yoon
1
Young-Man Choi
1

  1. Ajou University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 206, World cup-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea, Suwon, Republic of Korea
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Abstrakt

A laser measurement system for measuring straightness and parallelism error using a semiconductor laser was proposed. The designing principle of the developed system was analyzed. Addressing at the question of the divergence angle of the semiconductor laser being quite large and the reduction of measurement accuracy caused by the diffraction effect of the light spot at the longworking distance, the optical structure of the system was optimized through a series of simulations and experiments. A plano-convex lens was used to collimate the laser beam and concentrate the energy distribution of the diffraction effect. The working distance of the system was increased from 2.6 m to 4.6 m after the optical optimization, and the repeatability of the displacement measurement is kept within 2.2 m in the total measurement range. The performance of the developed system was verified by measuring the straightness of a machine tool through the comparison tests with two commercial multi-degree-of-freedom measurement systems. Two different measurement methods were used to verify the measurement accuracy. The comparison results show that during the straightness measurement of the machine tool, the laser head should be fixed in front of the moving axis, and the sensing part should move with the moving table of the machine tool. Results also show that the measurement error of the straightness measurement is less than 3 m compared with the commercial systems. The developed laser measurement system has the advantages of high precision, long working distance, low cost, and suitability for straightness and parallelism error measurement.
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Bibliografia

[1] Schwenke, H., Knapp, W., & Haitjema, H. (2008). Geometric error measurement and compensation of machines – an update. CIRP Annals, 57(2), 660–675. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2008.09.008
[2] Chen, Z., & Liu, X. (2020). A Self-adaptive interpolation method for sinusoidal sensors. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 69(10), 7675–7682. https://doi.org/10.1109/ TIM.2020.2983094
[3] Acosta, D., & Albajez, J. A. (2018). Verification of machine tools using multilateration and a geometrical approach. Nanomanufacturing and Metrology, 1(1), 39–44. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s41871-018-0006-y
[4] Chen, B. Y., Zhang, E. Z., & Yan, L. P. (2009). A laser interferometer for measuring straightness and its position based on heterodyne interferometry. Review of Scientific Instruments, 80(11), 115113. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3266966
[5] Zhu, L. J., Li, L., Liu, & J. H. (2009). A method for measuring the guideway straightness error based on polarized interference principle. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 49(3–4), 285–290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2008.10.009
[6] Lin, S. T. (2001). A laser interferometer for measuring straightness. Optics & Laser Technology, 33(3), 195–199. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0030-3992(01)00024-X
[7] Jywe, W. Y., Liu, C. H., Shien, W. H., Shyu, L. H., & Fang, T. H. (2006). Development of a multidegree of freedoms measuring system and an error compensation technique for machine tools. Journal of Physics Conference Series, 48(1), 761–765. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/48/1/144
[8] Feng, Q. B., Zhang, B. & Cui, C. X. (2013). Development of a simple system for simultaneous measuring 6DOF geometric motion errors of a linear guide. Optics Express, 21(22), 25805–25819. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.025805
[9] Liu, C. H., Chen, J. H., & Teng, Y. F. (2009). Development of a straightness measurement and compensation system with multiple right-angle reflectors and a lead zirconate titanate-based compensation stage. Review of Scientific Instruments, 80(11), 115105. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3254018
[10] Fan, K. C. (2000). A laser straightness measurement system using optical fiber and modulation techniques. International Journal of Machine Tools Manufacture, 40(14), 2073–2081. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/S0890-6955(00)00040-7
[11] Hsieh, T. H., Chen, P. Y., & Jywe, W. Y. (2019). A geometric error measurement system for linear guideway assembly and calibration. Applied Sciences, 9(3), 574. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030574
[12] Ni, J., & Huang, P. S. (1992). A multi-degree-of-freedom measuring system for CMM geometric errors. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 114(3), 362–369. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2899804
[13] Rahneberg, I., & Büchner, H. J. (2009). Optical system for the simultaneous measurement of twodimensional straightness errors and the roll angle. Proceedings of the International Society for Optics and Photonics, the Czech Republic, 7356. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.820634
[14] Chou, C., Chou, L. Y. & Peng, C. K. (1997). CCD-based CMM geometrical error measurement using Fourier phase shift algorithm. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 37(5): 579–590. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0890-6955(96)00078-8
[15] Sun, C., Cai, S., & Liu, Y. (2020). Compact laser collimation system for simultaneous measurement of five-degree-of-freedom motion errors. Applied Sciences, 10(15), 5057. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155057
[16] Huang, Y., Fan, Y., Lou, Z., Fan, K. C., & Sun, W. (2020). An innovative dual-axis precision level based on light transmission and refraction for angle measurement. Applied Sciences, 10(17), 6019. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10176019
[17] Born M., & Wolf E. (2013). Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light. Elsevier. https://www.sciencedirect.com/book/9780080264820/ principles-of-optic
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Peng Xu
1
Rui Jun Li
1
Wen Kai Zhao
1
Zhen Xin Chang
1
Shao Hua Ma
1
Kuang Chao Fan
1

  1. Hefei University of Technology, School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Hefei, China
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Abstrakt

Optical vortices are getting attention in modern optical metrology. Because of their unique features, they can be used as precise position markers. In this paper, we show that an artificial neural network can be used to improve vortex localization. A deep neural network with several hidden layers was trained to find subpixel vortex positions on the spiral phase maps. Several thousand training samples, differing by spiral density, its orientation, and vortex position, were generated numerically for teaching purposes. As a result, Best Validation Performance of the order of 10��5 pixel has been reached. To verify the usefulness of the proposed method, a related experiment in the setup of an optical vortex scanning microscope has been reported. It is shown that the vortex can be localized with subpixel accuracy also on experimental phase maps.
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Bibliografia

[1] Gbur, G. (2016). Singular Optics. CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315374260
[2] Vasnetsov, M. & Staliunas, K. (1999). Optical vortices. Nova Science.
[3] Andrews, D. (2008). Structured light and its applications, Academic Press.
[4] Wang, W., Ishii, N., Hanson, S., Miyamoto, Y., & Takeda, M. (2005). Pseudophase information from the complex analytic signal of speckle fields and its applications. Part II: Statistical properties of the analytic signal of a white-light speckle pattern applied to the microdisplacement measurement. Applied Optics, 44(23), 4916–4921. https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.44.004916
[5] Wang,W., Yokozeki, T., Ishijima, R., & Takeda, M. (2006). Optical vortex metrology based on the core structures of phase singularities in Laguerre- Gauss transform of a speckle pattern. Optics Express, 14(22), 10195–10206. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.010195
[6] Popiołek-Masajada, A., Borwinska, M., & Frączek, W. (2006). Testing a new method for small-angle rotation measurements with the optical vortex interferometer. Measurement Science and Technology, 17(4), 653–658. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/17/4/007
[7] Frączek E., & Mroczka, J. (2009). An accuracy analysis of small angle measurement using the optical vortex interferometer. Metrology and Measurement System, 15(1), 3–8.
[8] Eastwood, S. A., Bishop, A. I., Petersen, T. C., Paganin, D. M., & Morgan, M. J. (2012). Phase measurement using an optical vortex lattice produced with a three-beam interferometer. Optics Express, 20(13), 13947–13957. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.013947
[9] Bouchal, P., Štrbková, L., Dostál, Z., & Bouchal, Z. (2017). Vortex topographic microscopy for full-field reference-free imaging and testing. Optics Express, 25(18), 21428–21443. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.25.021428
[10] Schovanek, P., Bouchal, P., & Bouchal, Z. (2020). Optical topography of rough surfaces using vortex localization of fluorescent markers. Optics Letters, 45(16), 4468–4471. https://doi.org/10.1364/ OL.392072
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[15] Serrano-Trujillo, A., & Anderson, M. E. (2018). Surface profilometry using vortex beams generated with a spatial light modulator. Optics Communications, 427, 557–562. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.optcom.2018.07.003
[16] Doster, T., &Watnik, A. T. (2017). Machine learning approach to OAM beam demultiplexing via convolutional neural networks. Applied Optics, 56(12), 3386–3396. https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.56.003386
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[20] Płocinniczak, Ł., Popiołek-Masajada, A., Masajada, J., & Szatkowski, M. (2016). Analytical model of the optical vortex microscope. Applied Optics, 55(12), B20–B27. https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.55.000B20
[21] Popiołek-Masajada, A., Masajada, J., & Szatkowski, M. (2018). Internal scanning method as unique imaging method of optical vortex scanning microscope. Optics and Laser in Engineering, 105, 201– 208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2018.01.016
[22] Popiołek-Masajada, A., Masajada, J., & Kurzynowski, P. (2017). Analytical model of the optical vortex scanning microscope with the simple phase object. Photonics, 4(2), 38. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/photonics4020038
[23] Takeda, T. M., Ina, H., Kobayashi, S. (1982). Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 72(1), 156–60. https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.72.000156
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[25] Frączek, E., & Idzkowski, W. (2020). Artificial intelligent methods for the location of vortex points. In Rutkowski, L., Scherer, R., Korytkowski, M., Pedrycz, W., Tadeusiewicz R., & Zurada, J. M. (Eds.). Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing (pp. 71–77). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-61401-0_7
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Agnieszka Popiołek-Masajada
1
Ewa Frączek
2
Emilia Burnecka
1

  1. Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Department of Optics and Photonics, Poland
  2. Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Department of Telecommunication and Teleinformatics, Poland
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Abstrakt

The article presents a new technique for measuring paper deformation in unidirectional tensile tests, based on recording and analysis of a series of specimen images. The proposed technique differs from the DIC-based deformation measurement in that the cross-correlation of image data has been replaced with linear filtering. For this purpose, a regular grid of markers is printed on the sample. Filtering the image creates local maxima in the places where markers occur. The developed algorithm finds their location with sub-pixel accuracy. Printing a grid of markers on tested paper and use of reference objects visible in the same image as the paper sample, freed from the need to mechanically connect the camera and the universal testing machine and from the necessity to electronically synchronize their work. The obtained deformation distributions and Poisson’s ratios are in accordance with the literature data which confirms the correctness of the developed measurement technique.
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Bibliografia

[1] Polish Committee for Standardization. (2010). Paper and cardboard – Determination of tensile properties – Part 2: Test at constant tensile speed (20 mm / min) (ISO Standard No. PN-EN ISO 1924-2). (in Polish)
[2] Laermann, K. H. (Eds.). (2000). Optical Methods in Experimental Solid Mechanics. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-2586-1
[3] Zhu, C., Wang, H., Kaufmann, K., & Vecchio, K. S. (2020). A computer vision approach to study surface deformation of materials. Measurement Science and Technology, 31(5), 055602. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6501/ab65d9
[4] Sutton, M. A. (2008). Digital Image Correlation for Shape and Deformation Measurements. In: Sharpe, W. (Eds.). Springer Handbook of Experimental Solid Mechanics. Springer Handbooks (pp. 565-600). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-30877-7_20
[5] Sutton, M. A., Orteu, J. J., & Schreier, H. (2009). Image correlation for shape, motion and deformation measurements: basic concepts, theory and applications. Springer Science & Business Media. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-78747-3
[6] Khoo, S. W., Karuppanan, S., & Tan, C. S. (2016). A review of surface deformation and strain measurement using two-dimensional digital image correlation. Metrology and Measurement Systems, 23(3), pp. 461–480. https://doi.org/10.1515/mms-2016-0028
[7] Debella-Gilo, M., & Kääb, A. (2010). Sub-pixel Precision Image Matching for Displacement Measurement of Mass Movements Using Normalised Cross-Correlation. ISPRS TC VII Symposium – 100 Years ISPRS, Austria, XXXVIII, Part 7B.
[8] White, D. J., Take, W. A., & Bolton, M. D. (2003). Soil deformation measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and photogrammetry. Geotechnique, 53(7), 619–631. https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.2003.53.7.619
[9] Take, W. A. (2015). Thirty-Sixth Canadian Geotechnical Colloquium: Advances in visualization of geotechnical processes through digital image correlation. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 52(9), 1199–1220. https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2014-0080
10] Stanier, S. A., Blaber, J., Take, W. A., & White, D. J. (2016). Improved image-based deformation measurement for geotechnical applications. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 53(5), 727–739. https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2015-0253
[11] Chivers, K. & Clocksin, W. (2000). Inspection of Surface Strain in Materials Using Optical Flow, In Mirmehdi, M. & Barry T., (Eds.). Proceedings of the British Machine Conference. BMVA Press. https://doi.org/10.5244/C.14.41
[12] Lyubutin, P. S. (2015). Development of optical flow computation algorithms for strain measurement of solids. Computer Optics, 39(1), 94–100. https://doi.org/10.18287/0134-2452-2015-39-1-94-100
[13] Hartmann, C., & Volk,W. (2019). Digital image correlation and optical flow analysis based on the material texture with application on high-speed deformation measurement in shear cutting. International Conference on Digital Image & Signal Processing, United Kingdom.
[14] Jiao,W., Fang, Y.,&He, G. (2008). An integrated feature -based method for sub-pixel image matching. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, China, XXXVII, Part B1.
[15] Zwick Roell. Product Information videoXtens 2-120 HP. https://www.zwickroell.com
[16] Narita, G., Watanabe, Y., & Ishikawa, M. (2016). Dynamic projection mapping onto deforming nonrigid surface using deformable dot cluster marker. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 23(3), 1235–1248. https://doi.org/10.1109/TVCG.2016.2592910
[17] Mishra, S. R., Mohapatra, S. R., Sudarsanan, N., Rajagopal, K., & Robinson, R. G. (2017). A simple image-based deformation measurement technique in tensile testing of geotextiles. Geosynthetics International, 24(3), 306–320. https://doi.org/10.1680/jgein.17.00003
[18] Duda, A., & Frese, U. (2018). Accurate Detection and Localization of Checkerboard Corners for Calibration. 29th British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC-29), United Kingdom. https://bmvc2018.org/contents/papers/0508.pdf
[19] Jones, A. R. (1968). An Experimental Investigation of the In-Plane Elastic Moduli of Paper. Tappi, 51(5), 203–209.
[20] Szewczyk, W. (2008). New methods of assessing the load capacity of multilayer laminates of paper and cardboard. Science Notebooks Lodz University of Technology, 1027. (in Polish).
[21] Cao, X., Bi, Z.,Wei, X.,&Xie,Y. (2012). Determination of Poisson’s Ratio of Kraft Paper Using Digital Image Correlation. In: Zhang T. (Eds.). Mechanical Engineering and Technology. Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing (pp. 51-57), 125. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27329-2_8
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Paweł Pełczyński
1
Włodzimierz Szewczyk
1
Maria Bieńkowska
1

  1. Centre of Papermaking and Printing, Lodz University of Technology, 90-924 Lodz, Wolczanska 223, Poland
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Abstrakt

NTC thermistors are frequently used low in cost temperature sensors which provide some of the most desirable sensing features. However, due to the nonlinear static transfer function their sensitivity decreases with temperature increase, causing lower measurement accuracy in some regions of the measurement range. This paper proposes a method for NTC thermistor nonlinearity compensation using a Wheatstone bridge and a novel dual-stage single-flash piecewise-linear ADC. Both conversion stages are performed using the same flash ADC of a novel design based on a reduced number of comparators employed. In this manner, simpler design, lower production costs, higher compactness and lower power consumption of the linearizing ADC, are achieved. The proposed linearizing method is tested on the Vishay NTCLE413E2103F520L thermistor, in the range from 0°C to 100°C, and the obtained results confirmed the effectiveness of the method in measurement accuracy improvement: when the flash ADC of 10-bit resolution is employed the accuracy obtained is 7:4747 10-5°C.
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Bibliografia

[1] Michalski, L., Eckersdorf, K., Kucharski, J., & McGhee, J. (2001). Temperature Measurement. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/0470846135
[2] Webster, J., & Eren, H. (2014). Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook: Spatial, Mechanical, Thermal, and Radiation Measurement. CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/b15474
[3] Vishay. (2020). NTC Thermistors, Mini Epoxy PVC Twin Insulated Leads. [Datasheet NTCLE413, Document Number: 29078]. https://www.vishay.com/docs/29078/ntcle413.pdf
[4] Jeong, D. H., Kim, J. D., Song, H. J., Kim, Y. S., & Park, C. Y. (2015). Efficient calibration tool for thermistor temperature measurements. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 764–765, 1304–1308. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amm.764-765.1304
[5] Webster, J. G. (1999). The Measurement, Instrumentation and Sensors Handbook. CRC Press LLC. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781003040019
[6] Stankovic, S. B., & Kyriacou, P. A. (2011). Comparison of thermistor linearization techniques for accurate temperature measurement in phase change materials. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 307(1), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/307/1/012009
[7] Lukic, J., & Denic, D. (2015). A novel design of an NTC thermistor linearization circuit. Metrology and Measurement Systems, 22(3), 351–362. https://doi.org/10.1515/mms-2015-0035
[8] Oladimeji, I., Sabo Miya, H., Abdulkarim, A., Mudathir, A., & Amuda, S. (2019). Design of Wheatstone bridge based thermistor signal conditioning circuit for temperature measurement. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review. 12(1), 12–17. https://doi.org/10.25103/jestr.121.02
[9] Nagarajan, P. R., George, B., & Kumar, V. J. (2017). A linearizing digitizer for Wheatstone bridge based signal conditioning of resistive sensors. IEEE Sensors Journal, 17(6), 1696–1705. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2017.2653227
[10] Nenova, Z., & Nenov T. (2009). Linearization circuit of the thermistor connection. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 58(2), 441–449. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIM.2008.2003320
[11] Maiti, T. (2008). A new hardware approach for the linearization of remote thermistor temperaturevoltage characteristic. International Journal of Electronics, 95(2), 169–176. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207210801915642
[12] Sarkar, A., Dey, D., & Munshi, S. (2013). Linearization of NTC thermistor characteristic using opamp based inverting amplifier. IEEE Sensors Journal, 13(12), 4621–4626. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2013.2267332
[13] Lopez-Martin, A. J., & Carlosena, A. (2013). Sensor signal linearization techniques: A comparative analysis. Proceedings of the IEEE 4th Latin American Symposium on Circuits and Systems (LASCAS), Peru, 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1109/LASCAS.2013.6519013
[14] Dias Pereira, J. M., Postolache, O., & Silva Girao, P. M. B. (2007). A digitally programmable A/D converter for smart sensors applications. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 56(1), 158–163. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIM.2006.887771
[15] Santos, M., Horta, N., & Guilherme, J. (2014). A survey on nonlinear analog-to-digital converters. Integration, the VLSI Journal, 47(1), 12–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vlsi.2013.06.001
[16] Mohan, N. M., Kumar, V. J., & Sankaran, P. (2011). Linearizing dual-slope digital converter suitable for a thermistor. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 60(5), 1515–1521. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIM.2010.2092875
[17] Mahaseth, D., Kumar, L., & Islam, T. (2018). An efficient signal conditioning circuit to piecewise linearizing the response characteristic of highly nonlinear sensors. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 280(2018), 559–572. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2018.08.001
[18] Lukic, J., Živanovic, D.,&Denic, D. (2015). A compact and cost-effective linearization circuit used for angular position sensors. Facta Universitatis Series: Automatic Control and Robotics, 14(2), 123–134.
[19] Lopez-Martin, A. J., Zuza, M., & Carlosena, A. (2003). A CMOS A/D converter with piecewise linear characteristic and its application to sensor linearization. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 36(1–2), 39–46. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024437311497
[20] Bucci, G., Faccio, M., & Landi, C. (2000). New ADC with piecewise linear characteristic: case studyimplementation of a smart humidity sensor. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 49(6), 1154–1166. https://doi.org/10.1109/19.893250
[21] Chio, U. F.,Wei, H. G., Zhu, Y., Sin, S. W., U. S. P., Martins, R. P.,&Maloberti, F. (2010). Design and experimental verification of a power effective flash-SAR subranging ADC. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems – II: Express Briefs, 57(8), 607–611. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCSII.2010.2050937
[22] Jovanovic, J., & Denic, D. (2016). A cost-effective method for resolution increase of the two-stage piecewise linear ADC used for sensor linearization. Measurement Science Review, 16(1), 28–34. https://doi.org/10.1515/msr-2016-0005
[23] Lee, J. I., & Song, J. (2013). Flash ADC architecture using multiplexers to reduce a preamplifier and comparator count. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference of IEEE Region 10 (TENCON 2013), China, 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1109/TENCON.2013.6718487
[24] Lee,W., Huang, P., Liao,Y.,&Hwang,Y. (2007).Anewlowpower flashADCusing multiple-selection method. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits, Taiwan, 341–344. https://doi.org/10.1109/EDSSC.2007.4450132
[25] International Electrotechnical Commission. (2015). Preferred number series for resistors and capacitors (IEC 60063:2015). https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/22011
[26] Fraden, J. (2010). Handbook of Modern Sensors: Physics, Designs, and Applications. Springer Science + Business Media. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-6466-3
[27] Regtien, P., & Dertien, E. (2018). Sensors for Mechatronics. Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/ C2016-0-05059-3
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Jelena Jovanović
1
Dragan Denić
1

  1. University of Niš, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Measurements Department, Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, 18000 Niš, Serbia
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Abstrakt

We present two main ways to precisely create the equivalent transfer function of picosecond time-to-digital converters based on commonly used method with tapped time coding delay lines. The ways consist either in evaluation of the quantization steps boundaries of the delay lines or in summation of numbers of the line quantization steps. The paper contains results of comprehensive analysis of both methods. The advantage and high versatility of the addition method is demonstrated.
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Bibliografia

[1] Szplet, R., Jachna, Z., Kwiatkowski, P.,&Rózyc K. (2013). A 2.9 ps equivalent resolution interpolating time counter based on multiple independent coding lines. Measurement Science and Technology, 20(3), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/26/7/075002
[2] Wu, J., & Shi, Z. (2008). The 10-ps wave union TDC: Improving FPGA TDC resolution beyond its cell delay. Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, Dresden. 3440–3446. https://lss.fnal.gov/archive/2008/conf/fermilab-conf-08-498-e.pdf
[3] Szplet, R. (2014). Time-to-digital converters. In Carbone P., Kiaei, S., & Xu, W. (Eds.). Design, Modeling and Testing of Data Converters (pp. 211–246). Springer-Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/ 978-3-642-39655-7_7
[4] Cova, S. & Bertolaccini, M. (1970). Differential linearity testing and precision calibration of multichannel time sorters. Nuclear Instruments and Methods, 77(2), 269–276.
[5] Szplet, R., Szymanowski, R., & Sondej, D. (2019). Measurement Uncertainty of Precise Interpolating Time Counters. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 68(11), 4348–4356. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIM.2018.2886940
[6] Frankowski, R., Chaberski, D., & Kowalski, M. (2015). An optical method for the time-to-digital converters characterization. Proceedings of the International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, Budapest. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICTON.2015.7193659
[7] Rivoir J. (2006). Statistical Linearity Calibration of Time-to-Digital Converters Using a Free- Running Ring Oscillator. Proceedings of the 15th Asian Test Symposium, Fukuoka, Japan. 45–50. https://doi.org/10.1109/ATS.2006.260991
[8] Chaberski, D., Frankowski, R., Gurski, M., & Zielinski, M. (2017). Comparison of interpolators used for time-interval measurement systems based on multiple-tapped delay line. Metrology and Measurement Systems, 24(2), 401–412.
[9] Mota, M. (2000). Design and Characterization of CMOS High-Resolution TDCs. [Doctoral dissertation, Inst. Superior Técnico, Tech. Univ. of Lisbon].
[10] Wu, J. (2014). Uneven BinWidth Digitization and a Timing Calibration Method Using Cascaded PLL. Proceedings of 19th IEEE-NPSS Real-Time Conference 2014, Japan
[11] Xie, W., Chen, H., & Li, D. D. U. (2021). Efficient time-to-digital converters in 20 nm FPGAs with wave union. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics (Early Access). https://doi.org/10.1109/ TIE.2021.3053905
[12] Frankowski, R., Gurski, M., & Płóciennik, P. (2016). Optical methods of the delay cells characteristics measurements and their applications. Optical and Quantum Electronics, 48, 188. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11082-016-0465-6
[13] Kalisz, J., Orzanowski, T., & Szplet, R. (2000). Delay-locked loop technique for temperature stabilisation of internal delays of CMOS FPGA devices. Electronics Letters, 36(14), 1184–1185.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Dominik Sondej
1
Rafał Szymanowski
1
Ryszard Szplet
1

  1. Military University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Institute of Communication Systems, gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw 46, Poland
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Abstrakt

A mathematical method for nonlinear surrogate synthesis of frame surface eddy current probes providing a uniform eddy current density distribution in the testing object area is proposed. A metamodel of a frame movable eddy-current probe with a planar excitation system structure, used in the algorithm for surrogate optimal synthesis was created. The examples of a nonlinear synthesis of excitation systems with the application of the modern metaheuristic stochastic algorithms for finding the global extremum are considered. The numerical findings of the problem analyses are presented. The efficiency of the synthesized excitation structures was demonstrated on the basis of the eddy current density distribution graphs on the surface of the control zone of the object in comparison with classical analogues.
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Bibliografia

[1] Rosado, L. S., Gonzalez, J. C., Santos, T. G., Ramos, P. M., & Pieda, M. (2013). Geometric optimization of a differential planar eddy currents probe for non-destructive testing. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical., 197, 96–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2013.04.010
[2] Su, Z., Efremov, A., Safdarnejad, M., Tamburrino, A., Udpa, L., & Udpa, S. (2015). Optimization of coil design for near uniform interrogating field generation. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1650, 405–413. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4914636
[3] Su, Z.,Ye, C., Tamburrino, A., Udpa, L.,&Udpa, S. (2016). Optimization of coil design for eddy current testing of multi-layer structures. International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics, 52(1–2), 315–322. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAE-162030
[4] Liu, Z., Yao, J., He, C., Li, Z., Liu, X., & Wu, B. (2018). Development of a bidirectional-excitation eddy-current sensor with magnetic shielding: Detection of subsurface defects in stainless steel. IEEE Sensors J., 18(15), 6203–6216. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2018.2844957
[5] Ye, C., Udpa, L., & Udpa, S. (2016). Optimization and Validation of Rotating Current Excitation with GMR Array Sensors for Riveted Structures Inspection. Sensors, 16(9), 1512. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16091512
[6] Rekanos, I. T., Antonopoulos, C. S., & Tsiboukis, T. D. (1999). Shape design of cylindrical probe coils for the induction of specified eddy current distributions. IEEE Transactions Magnetics, 35(3), 1797–1800. https://doi.org/10.1109/20.767380
[7] Li, Y., Ren, S., Yan, B., Zainal Abidin, I. M., & Wang, Y. (2017). Imaging of subsurface corrosion using gradient-field pulsed eddy current probes with uniform field excitation. Sensors, 17, 1747. https://doi.org/10.3390/s17081747
[8] Hashimoto, M., Kosaka, D., Ooshima, K., & Nagata, Y. (2002). Numerical analysis of eddy current testing for tubes using uniform eddy current distribution. International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics, 15(1–4), 27–32. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAE-2002-511
[9] Repelianto, A. S., Kasai, N., Sekino, K., & Matsunaga, M. (2019). A Uniform Eddy Current Probe with a Double-Excitation Coil for Flaw Detection on Aluminium Plates. Metals, 9(10), 1116. https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101116
[10] Halchenko, V. Ya., Trembovetskaya, R. V., & Tychkov, V. V. (2020). Surface eddy current probes: excitation systems of the optimal electromagnetic field (review). Devices and Methods of Measurements, 11(2), 91–104. https://doi.org/10.21122/2220-9506-2020-11-2-91-104
[11] Trembovetska, R. V., Halchenko, V. Ya., Tychkov, V. V., & Storchak, A. V. (2020). Linear Synthesis of Uniform Anaxial Eddy Current Probes with a Volumetric Structure of the Excitation System. International Journal “NDT Days”, 3(4), 184–190. https://www.bg-s-ndt.org/journal/ vol3/JNDTD-v3-n4-a01.pdf (in Russian)
[12] Halchenko, V. Ya., Yakimov, A. N., & Ostapuschenko, D. L. (2010). Global optimum search of functions with using of multiagent swarm optimization hybrid with evolutional composition formation of population. Information Technology, 10, 9–16. http://novtex.ru/IT/it2010/It1010.pdf (in Russian)
[13] Itaya, T., Ishida, K., Kubota, Y., Tanaka, A., & Takehira, N. (2016). Visualization of Eddy Current Distributions for Arbitrarily Shaped Coils Parallel to a Moving Conductor Slab. Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, 47, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.2528/PIERM16011204
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[21] Trembovetska, R. V., Halchenko, V. Y., & Tychkov, V. V. (2019). Multiparameter hybrid neural network metamodel of eddy current probes with volumetric structure of excitation system. International Scientific Journal Mathematical Modeling, 4(3), 113–116. https://stumejournals.com/journals/ mm/2019/4/113
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[23] Halchenko, V. Ya., Trembovetska, R. V., Tychkov, V. V., & Storchak, A. V. (2020). The Construction of Effective Multidimensional Computer Designs of Experiments Based on a Quasi-random Additive Recursive Rd–sequence. Applied Computer Systems, 25(1), 70–76. https://doi.org/10.2478/ acss-2020-0009
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Volodymyr Ya. Halchenko
1
Ruslana Trembovetska
1
Volodymyr Tychkov
1

  1. Cherkasy State Technological University, Instrumentation, Mechatronics and Computer Technologies Department, Blvd. Shevchenka, 460, 18006, Cherkasy, Ukraine
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Abstrakt

This paper proposes an evaluation method for the observable trap depth range of space charge when using the pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method and its complementarity with the current integration charge (Q(t)) method. Based on the measurement process of the PEA method and the hopping conduction principle of space charge, the relationship between the trap depth and the residence time of charge is analysed. A method to analyse the effect of the measurement speed and the spatial resolution of the PEA system on the observable trap depth is then proposed. Further results show when the single measurement time needs 1 s and the resolution is 10 µm at room temperature, the corresponding trap depth is larger than 0.68 eV. Meanwhile, under high temperature or with voltage applied, the depth can further increase. The combined measurement results of the PEA and Q(t) methods indicate that the former focuses on charge distribution in deep traps, which allows to calculate the distorted electric field. The latter can measure the changing process of the total charge involved in all traps, which is applicable to analysing the leakage current. Therefore, the evaluation of HVDC insulation properties based on the joint application of the two methods is more reliable.
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Bibliografia

[1] Zhai, J., Li, W., Zha, J., Cheng, Q., Bian, X., & Dang, Z. (2020). Space charge suppression of polyethylene induced by blending with ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer. CSEE Journal of Power and Energy Systems, 6(1), 152–159. https://doi.org/10.17775/CSEEJPES.2019.01150
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[7] Gao, C., Qi, B., Gao, Y., Zhu, Z., & Li, C. (2019). Kerr electro-optic sensor for electric field in largescale oil-pressboard insulation structure. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 68(10), 3626–3634. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIM.2018.2881803
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Hanwen Ren
1
Tatsuo Takada
2
Yasuhiro Tanaka
2
Qingmin Li
1

  1. North China Electric Power University, State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, Beijing 102206, China
  2. Tokyo City University, 1-28-1 Tamazutsumi, Setagaya, Tokyo, 158-8557, Japan
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Abstrakt

Electrical properties of semiconductor materials depend on their defect structure. Point defects, impurities or admixture contained in a semiconductor material, strongly affect its properties and determine the performance parameters of devices made on its basis. The results of the currently used methods of examining the defect structure of semiconductor material are imprecise due to solution of ill-posed equations. These methods do not allow for determination of concentration of the defect centers examined. Improving the resolution of the obtained parameters of defect centers, determining their concentration and studying changes in the resistivity of semi-insulating materials can be carried out, among others, by modelling changes in the concentration of carriers in the conduction and valence bands. This method allows to determine how charge compensation in the material affects the changes in its resistivity. Calculations based on the Fermi-Dirac statistics can complement the experiment and serve as a prediction tool for identifying and characterizing defect centers. Using the material models (GaP, 4H–SiC) presented in the article, it is possible to calculate their resistivity for various concentrations of defect centers in the temperature range assumed by the experimenter. The models of semi-insulating materials presented in the article were built on the basis of results of testing parameters of defect centers with high-resolution photoinduced transient spectroscopy (HRPITS). The current research will allow the use of modelling to determine optimal parameters of semi-insulating semiconductor materials for use in photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS).
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Bibliografia

[1] Sangwal, K. (2007). Additives and Crystallization Processes: From Fundamentals to Applications. Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470517833
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[3] Pas, J., & Rosinski, A. (2017). Selected issues regarding the reliability-operational assessment of electronic transport systems with regard to electromagnetic interference. Eksploatacja i Niezawodnosc, 19(3), 375–381. https://doi.org/10.17531/ein.2017.3.8
[4] Makowski, L., Dziadak, B., & Suproniuk, M. (2019). Design and development of original WSN sensor for suspended particulate matter measurements. Opto-Electronics Review, 27(4), 363–368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.opelre.2019.11.005
[5] Górecki, P., & Górecki, K. (2015). The analysis of accuracy of selected methods of measuring the thermal resistance of IGBTs. Metrology and Measurement Systems, 22(3), 455–464. https://doi.org/10.1515/mms-2015-0036
[6] Matsuura, H., Komeda, M., Kagamihara, S., Iwata, H., Ishihara, R., Hatakeyama, T., Watanabe, T., Kojima, K., Shinohe, T., & Arai, K. (2004). Dependence of acceptor levels and hole mobility on acceptor density and temperature in Al-doped p-type 4H–SiC epilayers. Journal of Applied Physics, 96(5), 2708–2715. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1775298
[7] Kagamihara, S., Matsuura, H., Hatakeyama, T., Watanabe, T., Kushibe, M., Shinohe, T., & Arai, K. (2004). Parameters required to simulate electric characteristics of SiC devices for n-type 4H–SiC. Journal of Applied Physics, 96(10), 5601–5606. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1798399
[8] Matsuura, H., Komeda, M., Kagamihara, S., Iwata, H., Ishihara, R., Hatakeyama, T., Watanabe, T., Kojima, K., Shinohe, T., & Arai, K. (2004). Dependence of acceptor levels and hole mobility on acceptor density and temperature in Al-doped p-type 4H–SiC epilayers. Journal of Applied Physics, 96(5), 2708–2715. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1775298
[9] Suproniuk, M., Pawłowski, M., Wierzbowski, M., Majda-Zdancewicz, E., & Pawłowski, Ma. (2018). Comparison of methods applied in photoinduced transient spectroscopy to determining the defect center parameters: The correlation procedure and the signal analysis based on inverse Laplace transformation. Review of Scientific Instruments, 89(4). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5004098
[10] Suproniuk, M., Kaczmarek, W., & Pawlowski, M. (2019). A New Approach to Determine the Spectral Images for Defect Centres in High-Resistive Semiconductor Materials. Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference Electronics 2019, Lithuania. https://doi.org/10.1109/ELECTRONICS.2019.8765694
[11] Piwowarski, K. (2020). Comparison of photoconductive semiconductor switch parameters with selected switch devices in power systems. Opto-electronics Review, 28(2), 74–81. https://doi.org/10.24425/opelre.2020.132502
[12] Suproniuk, M. (2020). Effect of generation rate on transient photoconductivity of semi-insulating 4H–SiC. Scientific Reports, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68898-z
[13] Suproniuk, M., Piwowarski, K., Perka, B., Kaminski, P., Kozlowski, R., & Teodorczyk, M. (2019). Blocking characteristics of photoconductive switches based on semi-insulating GAP and GaN. Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika, 25(4), 36–39. https://doi.org/10.5755/j01.eie.25.4.23968
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Marek Suproniuk
1

  1. Military University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Institute of Electronic Systems, gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, Warsaw
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Abstrakt

The Centro de Desarrollo Tecnológico del Gas developed a static expansion system to enable the calibration of medium and high vacuum pressure gauges in Colombia. The system can generate pressures between 0.1 Pa and 100 kPa. The characterization tests included the evaluation of pressure stability and desorption rate, a trueness test, and the analysis of the uncertainty budget of the calibration result. The pressure stability test was successfully completed and showed the positive effect of baking on the final pressure in the system. The trueness test allowed concluding that the calibration results with the system are comparable with those obtained with a reference meter traceable to a national metrology institute. The uncertainty budget analysis indicated the dominance of the pressure of the unit under calibration and of the initial pressure in the small tank in different pressure ranges on the uncertainty of the result. A comparison with a Monte Carlo simulation led to the conclusion that in this situation, the GUM (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement) method is not ideal for estimating the uncertainty of the results.
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Bibliografia

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Jonathan Javier Duarte Franco
1
Carlos Mauricio Villamizar Mora
2
Carlos Eduardo García Sánchez
1

  1. Corporación Centro de Desarrollo Tecnológico del Gas, Grupo de Investigación en Fluidos y Energía, Carrera 23# 106-08, ZIP 680004, Bucaramanga, Colombia
  2. Universidad Industrial de Santander, Escuela de Ingeniería Mecánica, Grupo de Investigación en Energía y MedioAmbiente, Carrera 27 calle 9, ZIP 680002, Bucaramanga, Colombia

Instrukcja dla autorów

Sample article with Author guidelines

Types of contributions
Metrology and Measurement Systems welcomes submissions of the following article types:
• invited special issue or review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge within scope of the journal (about 20 edited pages, approximately 3000 characters each),
• research papers reporting high-quality original scientific or technological advancements (max. 12 pages),
• papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
• short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).

Manuscript preparation
General The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The camera-ready format – with attached separate files containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is required. A cover letter with clear explanation of scientific novelty of the paper is strongly recommended. Papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences, or strongly related to previous authors’ works, must be accompanied with a cover letter file, which should explain in details changes made in the manuscript in comparison with the original conference paper and highlight the novelty in reference to other authors’ works.
The main text of a manuscript should be printed on an A4 page (with margins of 2.5 cm) using Times New Roman style with a font size of 12 pt; the paragraphs should start with the indentation of 5 mm, and titles should be written in bold. That text can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, …), first-order subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., …, written in italics), and – if needed – second-order subsections (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., …, written same as first-order subsections). The only acceptable manuscript formats are in Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx).
The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors. The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors.

Figures
Figures (illustrations, photographs) and tables, provided in the camera-ready form suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction), should be additionally submitted (one per page), larger than the final size. While preparing figures we encourage to start with defining expected size and minimum font size that fit to all graphics in the manuscript – using the same style in all of your graphics visually improves the article. Final figure formats must be in one of the following: (vectors) .eps, .pdf, .ai or .cdr, and (bitmaps) .bmp, .gif, .tif or .jpg.
As far as plots, block diagrams, schematics etc. are concerned, we suggest to use one of vector formats to improve quality and scalability. Figures in vector formats must be saved using RGB colours and with fully white background (0% K). Hidden layers are unacceptable. Minimum line thickness printed in a single colour is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm), and 1 pt (0.36 mm) when using more colours. Typically we suggest 0.2-0.5 mm but in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Lines in plots should be distinguished not only by using different colours but also using different line types and markers, if needed.

Equation
All equations must be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Each equation should be preceded and followed by a 6-point spacing. Punctuate equations when they are part of a sentence. Equation numbers should be enclosed in parentheses. Equations should be prepared with the use of MathType or Microsoft Equation editors. The type size in the equation is the same as for the text. To make your equations more compact, you may use the appropriate mathematical symbols or expressions. The symbols used in an equation have to be defined before that equation or immediately after it. Use italics for variables (e.g. i, x, n), physical quantity symbol (e.g. voltage U, temperature T), letter pointers and general function symbols. Do not use italics for constants, indexes, minimum, maximum and trigonometric functions, mathematical operators, differentials, etc. To refer to the equation use “(1)”, not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, except at the beginning of a sentence where “Equation (1)” should be used. We recommend to use International System of Units SI i.e. metre-kilogram-second system of units. As a decimal separator dot should be used in the entire manuscript (text, figures, tables).

References
The paper has to be clearly positioned in the context of relevant literature in the field of measurements and instrumentation. Note that lack of references from the main field of Metrology and Measurement Systems interest may suggest that the content of manuscript does not exactly correspond to the scope of metrological journals. It may reduce possibility that a proposed paper will be read by audience society. In such a case our Editorial Board may suggest to send the manuscript to a more appropriate journal. Also note that the use of possibly up-to-date references may indicate importance of your work. Table below gives examples of some relevant and renewable journals related to widely understood metrology.

Journal

Publisher

ISSN

Metrologia

IOP Publishing

0026-1394

IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

IEEE

0018-9456

Measurement

Elsevier

0263-2241

Measurement Science and Technology

IOP Publishing

0957-0233

Metrology and Measurement Systems

PAS

0860-8229

Review of Scientific Instruments

IOP Publishing

0034-6748

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE

1557-9948

IET Science, Measurement & Technology

IET

1751-8822

Journal of Instrumentation

SISSA, IOP Publishing

1748-0221

Measurement Science Review

Walter de Gruyter

1335-8871

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine

IEEE

1094-6969

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences

PAS

2300-1917

Opto-Electronics Review

PAS

1896-3757

IEEE Sensors Journal

IEEE

1558-1748

Sensors

MDPI

1424-8220



References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, i.e. [1]; their list, numbered in citation order, should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should follow the APA 7th edition formatting style, i.e.: for an journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, full journal name, volume, issue (in brackets) and page numbers. Put all author names unless there are more than 20. Otherwise, after the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author’s name (do not place an ampersand before it).

Submission process
Manuscript should be submitted via the Internet Editorial System (IES) – an online submission and peer review system. In order to submit the manuscript via the IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. The submission of the manuscript in a single file, i.e. “Article File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures of high quality and tables embedded in the text), is preferred. All figures have to be uploaded in separate files. The generated PDF file has to be approved. The PDF file has lower quality of the embedded figures to limit its size only.
The submission of a manuscript means that its content has not been published previously, it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which has to be signed before publication. The copyright form is available in the IES.
The Authors are urged to suggest 4 to 5 reviewers in their application (with names, affiliations and addresses) with whom the Editorial Board could co-operate while processing the paper. Proposed reviewers should be experts deeply involved in issues related to the subject matter of the paper and they are intended to come from different universities or research centres.
Each submitted manuscript is subject to a single-blind peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on the reviewers’ comments. If necessary, the authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to exactly fit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the research field, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours from receipt. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding author free of charge. For colour pages the authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of the main distributor (given in “Subscription Information”) must be completed before the date indicated by the Editorial Office.

Other information
It is possible to include supplementary files related to the article content, such as e.g. developed databases. These files can be then used by other researchers to compare their algorithms using the same input data. For more details about supplementary files please contact the Editorial Board: metrology@wat.edu.pl. The biographical statements, at the very end of the article, are not obligatory, however, they are kindly recommended. Each statement should include the author’s full name and brief personal history focused on areas of research and scientific achievements. The biographical statement may not exceed 100 words and should be written using Times New Roman style with a font size of 8 pt.
The publication of your article is a great achievement but then it needs to be further promoted to make it more visible to the research community. Responsibility for this task lies with the Authors and our Editorial Board. We guarantee free access to the article in the Journals PAN of the Polish Academy of Science, including articles in Early Access form (published just after acceptance decision), indexing in popular and renewable databases (e.g. Thomson Scientific Master Journal List, Elsevier’s Scopus, Google Scholar). Furthermore, selected articles are highlighted on the journal website and are reprinted for promotion at conferences and other events. The Authors can share the final form of the article on various social networks and research-sharing platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin, ResearchGate, Academia.edu, SciProfiles. They are also encouraged to update personal and institutional webpages by adding the title and a link of the article. Feel free also to share your work with your colleagues using any other methods that do not conflict with the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license.
For more detailed description about how to write a paper for the Metrology and Measurement Systems journal please look at the Author guidelines for manuscript preparation. We strongly recommend using this file as a template for manuscript preparation.

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