Applied sciences

Opto-Electronics Review


Opto-Electronics Review | 2021 | 29 | 4

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Advances in photonic technologies, with new processes and scopes of photonic integrated circuits, have generated a lot of interest as the field allows to obtain sensors with reduced size and cost and build systems with high interconnectivity and information density. In this work, answering the needs of photonic sensors that must be portable, more energy-efficient, and more accurate than their electrical counterparts, also with a view to the emerging field of neuromorphic photonics, a versatile device is presented. The proposed device makes use of the well-known advantages provided by optical bistability. By combining two distributed feedback-multi quantum well semiconductor laser structures, this new optical multiple inputs - digital output device offers various essential purposes (such as logic gates, wavelength detector and monitoring) with no need for specific manufacturing for each of them. Through a commercial computer-aided design tool, VPIphotonics™, the necessary characterization of proposed device is also described.
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Authors and Affiliations

Antonio M. Alaíz-Gudín
Ana P. González-Marcos

  1. Photonic Technology and Bioengineering Department, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid, 28040 Spain
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A compact temperature measuring device using a weakly coupled multi-core fibre in the Michelson interferometer structure is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The device is manufactured by an easy and simple splicing approach which consists of a multi-core fibre segment and an in-fibre coupler. In-fibre coupler is made of a cascaded single-mode fibre and multi-core fibre balls. It enhances the interference phenomenon of light energy between the central core and the outer cores of a multi-core fibre. The sensor shows a high quality fringe visibility of about 14–18 dB in the wavelength spectrum. Multi-core structure presents multi-path interferences and exhibits a maximum temperature sensitivity of 70.6 pm/°C in the range of 20–90°C with an insensitive response to the refractive index in the range of 1.334 to 1.354. The device has the advantages of compact size, easy manufacturing, and it solves cross-sensitivity between temperature and refractive index making it an authentic real-time temperature monitoring solution.
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Authors and Affiliations

Farhan Mumtaz
1 2
Yutang Dai
Hu Wenbin
Lashari G. Abbas
3 1
Rashda Parveen
Muhammad A. Ashraf 

  1. School of Information and Communication Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122#, Wuhan 430070, China
  2. Communications Lab., Department of Electronics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
  3. National Engineering Laboratory for Fibre Optic Sensing Technology, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122#, Wuhan 430070, China
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High power fibre lasers need to be cooled efficiently to avoid their thermal damage. Temperature distribution in fibre should be estimated during the fibre laser design process. The steady-state heat equation in a cylindrical geometry is solved to derive a practical formula for temperature radial distribution in multi-layered optical fibres with arbitrary number of the layers. The heat source is located in one or more cylindrical domains. The validity of the analytical formula is tested by comparison with static heat transfer simulations of typical application examples including octagonal double clad fibre, air-clad fibre, fibre with nonuniform, microstructured core. The accuracy sufficient for practical use is reported even for cases with not exactly cylindrical domains.
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Authors and Affiliations

Martin Grábner
Pavel Peterka
Pavel Honzátko

  1. Department of Fiber Lasers and Nonlinear Optics, Institute of Photonics and Electronics, Czech Academy of Sciences, 1014/57 Chaberská St., 18251 Praha 8, Czech Republic
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The paper analyses the operation of different types of electronic colour sensors based on the light spectrum analysis. The application goal was to detect the type of the airport lamp based on differences in colour components of the light emitted by luminaires with specific spectral characteristics. Recognition of airport lamps is based on the analysis of the light spectrum. Proposed solution allows for an automatic software selection of appropriate conversion factors and comparison with specific standards necessary for this type of measurements. Various types of sensors were discussed and the AS7262 sensor was examined in detail. The colour sensor and the light intensity sensor were used in the mobile control device for examining elevated airport lamps and in the measurement platform for quality testing of embedded airport lamps. Two additional aspects were investigated: 1) influence of an additional acrylic glass cover; 2) distance between airport lamps and the spectrum sensor.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jakub Suder
Kacper Podbucki
Tomasz Marciniak
Adam Dąbrowski

  1. Division of Signal Processing and Electronic Systems, Institute of Automation and Robotics, Poznan University of Technology, 24 Jana Pawła II Ave., 60-965 Poznań, Poland
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This research paper discusses an analytical approach to designing the active region of light emitting diodes to enhance its performance. The layers in the active region were modified and the effects of changing the width of quantum well and barrier layers in a multi-quantum light emitting diode on the output power and efficiency have been investigated. Also, the ratio of the quantum well width to the B layer width was calculated and proposed in this research paper. The study is carried out on two different LED structures. In the first case, the width of the quantum well layers is kept constant while the width of the B layers is varied. In the second case, both the quantum well and B layer widths are varied. Based on the simulation results, it has been observed that the LED power efficiency increases considerably for a given quantum well to B layers width ratio without increasing the production complexity. It is also seen that for a desired power efficiency the width of quantum well should be between 0.003 µm and 0.006 µm, and the range of B width (height) should be 2.2 to 6 times the quantum well width. The proposed study is carried out on the GaN-AlGaN-based multi-quantum well LED structure, but this study can be extended to multiple combinations of the semiconductor structures.
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Authors and Affiliations

Lokesh Sharma
Ritu Sharma

  1. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Malaviya, National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302017, India
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Fano resonance is an optical effect that emerges from the coherent coupling and interference (constructive and destructive) between the continuous state (background process) and the Lorentzian state (resonant process) in the plasmonic waveguide-resonator system. This effect has been used in the applications like optical sensors. These sensors are extensively used in sensing biochemicals and gases by the measurement of refractive index changes as they offer high sensitivity and ultra-high figure of merit. Herein, we surveyed several plasmonic Fano sensors with different geometries composed of metal-insulator-metal waveguide(s). First, the resonators are categorized based on different architectures. The materials and methods adopted for these designs are precisely surveyed and presented. The performances are compared depending upon the characterization parameters like sensitivity and figure of merit. Finally, based on the survey of very recent models, the advances and challenges of refractive index sensing deployed on Fano resonances are discussed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rammani Adhikari
1 2
Diksha Chauhan
Genene T. Mola
Ram P. Dwivedi

  1. Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Shoolini University, Bajhol, (HP) 173229, India
  2. School of Engineering, Pokhara University, Pokhara Metropolitan City 30, Kaski, Nepal
  3. School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Kwazulu Natal, Scottsville, South Africa
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In this paper, the effect of an indoor visible light communication channel is studied. Moreover, the analysis of the received power distribution of the photodiode in the line of sight and the first reflection of the channel without line of sight with several parameters is simulated. Two different waveforms are explained in detail. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing has been widely adopted in radio frequency and optical communication systems. One of the most important disadvantages of the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing signal is the high peak-to-average power ratio. Therefore, it is important to minimize the peak-to-average power ratio in the visible light communication systems more than in radio-frequency wireless applications. In the visible light communication systems, the high peak-to-average power ratio produces a high DC bias which reduces power efficiency of the system. A discrete Fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is proposed to be used in wireless communication systems; its ability to minimize peak-to-average power ratio has been tested. The analysis of two different subcarrier allocation methods for the discrete Fourier transform-spread subcarriers, as well as the examination of two distinct subcarrier allocation strategies, distributed and localized mapping, are investigated and studied. The effects of an accurate new sub-band mapping for the localized discrete Fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing scheme are presented in this paper. The light-fidelity system performance of the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing and discrete Fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with different sub-mapping techniques are simulated with Matlab™. A system performance size of bit error rate and peak-to-average power ratio are obtained, as well.
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Authors and Affiliations

Saleh Hussin
Eslam M. Shalaby

  1. Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44519 Egypt
  2. Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, Higher Technological institute, 10th of Ramadan City, Megawra 1, 44629 Egyp
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In perovskite solar cells, series of symmetrical and asymmetrical imino-naphthalimides were tested as hole-transporting materials. The compounds exhibited high thermal stability at the temperature of the beginning of thermal decomposition above 300 °C. Obtained imino-naphthalimides were electrochemically active and their adequate energy levels confirm the application possibility in the perovskite solar cells. Imino-naphthalimides were absorbed with the maximum wavelength in the range from 331 nm to 411 nm and emitted light from the blue spectral region in a chloroform solution. The presented materials were tested in the perovskite solar cells devices with a construction of FTO/b-TiO2/m-TiO2/perovskite/ HTM/Au. For comparison, the reference perovskite cells were also performed (without hole-transporting materials layer). Of all the proposed materials tested as hole-transporting materials, the bis-(imino-naphthalimide) containing in core the triphenylamine structure showed a power conversion efficiency at 1.10% with a short-circuit current at 1.86 mA and an open-circuit voltage at 581 mV.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mateusz Korzec
Sonia Kotowicz
Agnieszka K. Pająk
1 2
Ewa Schab-Balcerzak
1 3

  1. Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Silesia in Katowice, 9 Szkolna St., 40-007 Katowice, Poland
  2. Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymont St., 30-059 Krakow, Poland
  3. Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 M. Curie-Skłodowska St., 41-819 Zabrze, Poland
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The technology of manufacturing silicon solar cells is complex and consists of several stages. The final steps in succession are the deposition of antireflection layer and discharge contacts. Metallic contacts are usually deposited by the screen printing method and then, fired at high temperature. Therefore, this article presents the results of a research on the effect of heat treatment on the properties of the Al2O3 thin film previously deposited by the atomic layer deposition method. It works well as both passivating and antireflection coating. Moreover, heat treatment affects the value of the cell short-circuit current and, thus, its efficiency. The surface morphology, optical and electrical properties were investigated, describing the influence of heat treatment on the properties of the deposited layers and the manufactured solar cells.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marek Szindler
Magdalena M. Szindler

  1. Scientific and Didactic Laboratory of Nanotechnology and Material Technologies, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, 7 Towarowa St., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
  2. Department of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, 18a Konarskiego St., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Hybrid pixel radiation detectors with a direct photon-to-charge conversion working in a single photon counting mode have gained increasing attention due to their high dynamic range and noiseless imaging. Since sensors of different materials can be attached to readout electronics, they enable work with a wide range of photon energies. The charge-sharing effect observed in segmented devices, such as hybrid pixel detectors, is a phenomenon that deteriorates both spatial resolution and detection efficiency. Algorithms that allow the detection of a photon irrespective of the charge-sharing effect are proposed to overcome these limitations. However, the spatial resolution of the detector can be further improved beyond the resolution determined by the pixel size if information about the charge proportions collected by neighbouring pixels is used to approximate the interaction position. In the article, an approach to achieve a subpixel resolution in a hybrid pixel detector working in the single photon counting mode is described. Requirements and limitations of digital inter-pixel algorithms which can be implemented on-chip are studied. In the simulations, the factors influencing the detector resolution are evaluated, including size of a charge cloud, number of virtual pixel subdivisions, and detector parameters.
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Authors and Affiliations

Aleksandra Krzyżanowska
Robert Szczygieł

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, 30 A. Mickiewicza Ave., 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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The research and analysis of the bactericidal properties of the spacer knitted fabric with the UV-C system are presented in this paper. The disintegration factor affecting the bacteria in the knitted fabric is the UV-C radiation in the range of 265–270 nm distributed via woven optical fibres. The way of integrating elements of the system generating the UV-C radiation in the structure of the spacer knitted fabric was designed, as well as various configurations of optical fibres arrangement, fibre density, number of radiation sources, and diode types were tested. The material was contaminated with selected microorganisms indicative of sanitary contamination and important in terms of nosocomial infections. The scope of the research included microbiological (quantitative and qualitative) analyses of selected taxonomic groups of microorganisms (mesophilic bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes) before and after the irradiation process. The analysis of the research results and the applied modification of the knitted fabric turned out to be effective in reducing the amount of potentially pathogenic microorganisms.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ewa Łada-Tondyra
Adam Jakubas
Beata Jabłońska
Ewa Stańczyk-Mazanek

  1. Częstochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Częstochowa, Poland
  2. Częstochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Infrastructure and Environment, Częstochowa, Poland
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The present review is mainly focused on the extended analysis of the results obtained from coupled measurement techniques of a thermal imaging camera and chronoamperometry for imines in undoped and doped states. This coupled technique allows to identify the current-voltage characteristics of thin films based on imine, as well as to assess layer defects in thermal images. Additional analysis of results provides further information regarding sample parameters, such as resistance, conductivity, thermal resistance, and Joule power heat correlated with increasing temperature. As can be concluded from this review, it is possible not only to study material properties at the supramolecular level, but also to tune macroscopic properties of -conjugated systems. A detailed study of the structure-thermoelectrical properties in a series of eight unsymmetrical and symmetrical imines for the field of optoelectronics and photovoltaics has been undertaken. Apart from this molecular engineering, the imines properties were also tuned by supramolecular engineering via protonation with camphorsulfonic acid and by creation of bulk-heterojunction compositions based on poly(4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-4,6-diyl) and/or [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) towards the analysed donor or acceptor ability of imines in the active layer. The use of coupled measurement techniques of a thermal imaging camera and chronoamperometry allows obtaining comprehensive data on thermoelectric properties and defects indicating possible molecule rearrangement within the layer.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof. A. Bogdanowicz
Agnieszka Iwan

  1. Military Institute of Engineer Technology, 136 Obornicka St., 50-961 Wroclaw, Poland
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Preliminary results of laboratory and field tests of fibre optic rotational seismographs designed for rotational seismology are presented. In order to meet new directions of the research in this field, there is clearly a great need for suitable and extremely sensitive wideband sensors. The presented rotational seismographs based on the fibre optic gyroscopes show significant advantages over other sensor technologies when used in the seismological applications. Although the presented results are prepared for systems designed to record strong events expected by the so-called “engineering seismology”, the described system modification shows that it is possible to construct a device suitable for weak events monitoring expected by basic seismological research. The presented sensors are characterized, first and foremost, by a wide measuring range. They detect signals with amplitudes ranging from several dozen nrad/s up to even few rad/s and frequencies from 0.01 Hz to 100 Hz. The performed Allan variance analysis indicates the sensors main parameters: angle random walk in the range of 3 ∙ 10 −8 - 2 ∙ 10 −7 rad/s and bias instability in the range of 2 ∙ 10 −9 - 2 ∙ 10 −8 rad/s depending on the device. The results concerning the registration of rotational seismic events by the systems located in Książ Castle, Poland, as well as in the coalmine “Ignacy” in Rybnik, Poland were also presented and analysed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Leszek R. Jaroszewicz
Michał Dudek
Anna T. Kurzych
Krzysztof P. Teisseyre

  1. Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 2 gen. S. Kaliskiego St., Warszawa, 00-908, Poland
  2. Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 64 Ks. Janusza St., Warszawa, 01-452, Poland

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