Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research

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Polish Polar Research | 2011 | No 1 |

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Abstract

This report describes the isolation and characterization of bacterial isolates that produce anti−microbial compounds from one of the South Shetland Islands, King George Is − land, Antarctica. Of a total 2465 bacterial isolates recovered from the soil samples, six (BG5, MTC3, WEK1, WEA1, MA2 and CG21) demonstrated inhibitory effects on the growth of one or more Gram−negative or Gram−positive indicator foodborne pathogens ( i.e. Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae , Enterobacter cloacae , Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Bacillus cereus ). Upon examination of their 16S rRNA sequences and biochemical profiles, the six Antarctic bacterial isolates were identified as Gram−negative Pedobacter cryoconitis (BG5), Pseudomonas migulae (WEK1), P. corrugata (WEA1) and Pseudomonas spp. (MTC3, MA2, and CG21). While inhibitors produced by strains BG5, MTC3 and CG21 were sensitive to protease treatment, those produced by strains WEK1, WEA1, and MA2 were insensitive to catalase, lipase, a −amylase, and protease enzymes. In addtion, the six Antarctic bacterial isolates appeared to be resistant to multiple antibiotics.
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Authors and Affiliations

Clemente Michael Vui Ling Wong
Heng Keat Tam
Siti Aisyah Alias
Marcelo González
Gerardo González-Rocha
Mariana Domínguez-Yévenes
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Abstract

Populations of Antarctic hairgrass Deschampsia antarctica Desv. from King George Island exhibit variation in many traits. The reason for that is not evident and could be addressed to variable environmental conditions. Obviously, phenotypic variation could be due to stable or temporal changes in expression pattern as the result of adaptation. Stable changes could be due to mutations or site DNA methylation variation that modified expression pattern. Recently, metAFLP approach was proposed to study such effects. A variant of methylation sensitive AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism), based on the isoschizomeric combinations Acc65 I/ Mse I and Kpn I/ Mse I was applied to analyze the sequence and site DNA methylation differences between two D. antarctica populations exhibiting morphological dissimilarities. Both DNA sequence mutations and site methylation pattern alternations were detected among and within analyzed populations. It is assumed that such changes might have originated as the response to environmental conditions that induced site methylation alternations leading to phenotypic variation of D. antarctica populations from South Shetland Islands.
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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna J. Chwedorzewska
Piotr B. Bednarek
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Abstract

Between 1979 and 2007, various sampling projects from the Polish Arctowski Research Station in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica, collected a diverse assemblage of pycnogonids, inter alia . Examination of this material has revealed 24 species in 11 genera and six families: all of this material is described. Samples were from poorly− sorted fine−sand to coarse−silt substrata, at depths between 27 and 405 m. The diverse assemblage was of species consistent with the known pycnogonid fauna of these depths in the South Shetlands and the Palmer Archipelago region, and includes a number of species re− corded for only the second time since the types. As typical for Antarctic waters, the predominant and most diverse genus was Nymphon (nine species); the prevalent species was Nymphon eltaninae , not Nymphon australe : implications for the apparent wide−distribution of records of the latter species are discussed. These records increase the biogeographical range of Nymphon subtile and Nymphon punctum from Subantarctic waters to the Scotia Sea
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Authors and Affiliations

Roger N. Bamber
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Abstract

Palaeostresses inferred from brittle mesostructures in the southern Wright Peninsula show a stress field characterized by compressional, strike−slip and extensional regime stress states. The compressional stress ( s 1 ) shows a main NW−SE direction and the extensional stress ( s 3 ) shows a relative scattering with two main modes: NE−SW to E−W and NW−SE. The maximum horizontal stress ( s y ) has a bimodal distribution with NW−SE and NE−SW direction. The compressional orientation is related to subduction of the former Phoenix Plate under the Antarctic Plate from the Early Jurassic to the Early Miocene. Extensional structures within a broad−scale compressional stress field can be related to both the decrease in relative stress magnitudes from active margins to intraplate regions and stretching processes occurring in eastern Adelaide Island, which develop a fore−arc or intra−arc basin from the Early Miocene. Stress states with NW−SE−trending s 1 are compatible with the dominant pattern established for the western Antarctic Peninsula. NW−SE orientations of s 3 suggest the occurrence of tectonic forces coming from fore−arc extension along the western Antarctic Peninsula.
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Authors and Affiliations

Adolfo Maestro
Jerónimo López-Martínez
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Abstract

The well−known Jurassic macrofloras from Hope Bay at the northernmost tip of the Antarctic Peninsula continue to yield new taxa . This paper reports on a new type of plant re− productive organ. The affinity of this organ r emains unclear; it may be affiliated with the Schizaceae or Osmundaceae, but similarities to po llen organs of the Podocarpaceae are also discussed. Because the fossils differ from hitherto known Mesozoic fertile fronds and conifer pollen organs in some details, the new taxon, Spesia antarctica nov. gen. et sp. is proposed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Maria Ociepa
Maria Barbacka
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Abstract

A 6 km long stretch of the coast of Calypsostranda between Skilvika and Josephbukta, situated on the western side of Recherchefjorden, was investigated. It is made of an accumulative marine terrace at a height of 2–8 m a.s.l. (terrace 1) and width of 40–180 m, divided by a cliffed section in the frontal moraines of Renardbreen. From the character and intensity of changes, the area was divided into 6 zones. The aim was to analyse the dynamics of changes within coastal zone from 1936 to 2007 and to characterise the influence of various morphogenetic factors (marine, fluvial, cryospheric). The important element of this study has been to determine sources and directions of sediment transport. The dynamics of changes of coastal zone in the Calypsostranda region was established from archival maps and precise GPS measurements for the periods: 1936–1960, 1960–1990, 1990–2000, 2000–2005, 2005–2006, 2006–2007. Comparing the extension of shoreline between 1936 and 2007 showed that there was more erosion than accumulation. Nearly 110 000 m 2 of the area of terrace 1 decreased, whereas about 77 000 m 2 appeared. The net balance for 1936–2007 was about −32 700 m 2 , on average over the whole length of the shoreline, it re − treated by 5.7 m (0.08 m a −1 ). The cease of sediment delivery in the extramarginal sandur fans area of Renardbreen caused intensification of marine processes, that made the shore − line retreat by over 100 m. Continuing sediment delivery from the Scottelva catchment, with contribution of material from erosion of the north end of the shoreline studies, caused the aggradation of coastal zone by over 60 m near its mouth.
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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Zagórski

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