Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research

Content

Polish Polar Research | 2013 | No 1 |

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Abstract

Determination of High Arctic regions bathymetry is strictly dependent from weather and ice mass quantity. Due to safety, it is often necessary to use a small boat to study fjords area, especially close to glaciers with unknown bathymetry. This precludes the use of modern multi−beam echosounders, and so traditional single−beam echosounders have been used for bathymetry profiling. Adequate interpolation techniques were determined for the most probable morphological formations in−between bathymetric profiles. Choosing the most accurate interpolation method allows for the determination of geographical regionalisation of submarine elevations of the Brepollen area (inner part of Hornsund, Spitsbergen). It has also been found that bathymetric interpolations should be performed on averaged grid values, rather than individual records. The Ordinary Kriging Method was identified as the most adequate for interpolations and was compared with multi beam scanning, which was possible to make due to a previously modelled single beam interpolation map. In total, eight geographical units were separated in Brepollen, based on the bathymetry, slope and aspect maps. Presented results provide a truly new image of the area, which allow for further understanding of past and present processes in the High Arctic.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mateusz Moskalik
Piotr Grabowiecki
Jarosław Tęgowski
Monika Żulichowska
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Abstract

A rich collection of exceptionally preserved Lower Triassic fossil fish remains obtained during the Polish Spitsbergen Expedition of 2005 includes many isolated teeth believed to belong to a saurichthyid actinopterygian. Stable isotope analysis ( d 13 C and d 18 O) of putative Saurichthys teeth from the Hornsund area (South Spitsbergen) acting as a paleoenvironmental proxy has permitted trophic−level reconstruction and comparison with other Lower Triassic fish teeth from the same location. The broader range of d 13 C values obtained for durophagous teeth of the hybodont selachian, Lissodus , probably reflects its migratory behaviour and perhaps a greater feeding diversity. X−ray microcomputed tomography (XMT), a non−destructive technique, is used for the first time in order to elucidate de − tails of tooth histology, the results of which suggest that the method has considerable potential as a future analytical tool.
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Authors and Affiliations

Błażej Błażejowski
Christopher J. Duffin
Piotr Gieszcz
Krzysztof Małkowski
Marcin Binkowski
Michał Walczak
Samuel A. McDonald
Philip J. Withers
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Abstract

We assessed culturable soil microfungal diversity in various habitats around Hornsund, Spitsbergen in the High Arctic, using potato dextrose agar ( PDA) medium. Thermal growth classification of the fungi obtained was determined by incubating them in 4 ° Cand 25 ° C, permitting separation of those with psychrophilic, psychrotolerant and mesophilic characteristics. In total, 68 fungal isolates were obtained from 12 soil samples, and grouped into 38 mycelial morphotypes. Intergenic spacer regions of these morphotypes were sequenced, and they represented 25 distinct taxonomic units, of which 21 showed sufficient similarity with available sequence data in NCBI to be identified to species level. Soil under ornithogenic influence showed the highest species diversity, including sequences assigned to Mortierella macrocystis, M. elongata, Mortierella sp., Cudoniella sp., Varicosporium elodeae , Beauveria bassiana , Geomyces pannorum , Penicillium sp. and Atradidymella muscivora . Fourteen taxa were classified as psychrophilic, seven mesophilic, and four psychrotolerant.
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Authors and Affiliations

Peter Convey
Hafizah Siti Hafizah
Alias Siti Aisyah
Siang Hii Yii
Jerzy Smykla
Pang Ka−lai
Guo Sheng−yu
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Abstract

During three austral summer seasons cargo, expeditioner clothes and equipment of the Polish Antarctic Expedition were examined for the presence of alien propagules. Detailed inspections were undertaken at the station buildings, searching for any invertebrates. During each austral summer fresh fruits and vegetables were also inspected. A total of 359 invertebrates and their remains were found in cargo transported to Arctowski Station, or caught in the station’s facilities. The majority of samples were classified as cultivation pests (26%), food pests (43%), wood−destroying pests (4%), domestic insects and arachnids (15%). Through supply of the research station a wide range of alien organisms can be accidentally transported and ultimately introduced to the Antarctic. This study has clearly demonstrated that almost all cargo items can be a potential vector for alien organisms. Species from a broad range of biological groups can be transported to the Antarctic and remain in a viable state.
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Authors and Affiliations

Małgorzata Korczak-Abshire
Katarzyna J. Chwedorzewska
Anna Augustyniuk-Kram
Maria Olech
Maria Lityńska-Zając
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Abstract

Four new Antarctic holothuroid species are described for specimens from Admiralty Bay in King George Island. A new genus Dendrelasia O’Loughlin is erected for new cucumariid species Dendrelasia sicinski with dendrochirotid body form and elasipodid type spinous rod ossicles. Cucumariid Staurocucumis krzysztofi has bowl ossicles predominantly with marginal teeth. Provisionally−assigned thyonid Allothyone presleri has table ossicles with spires comprising predominantly four pillars. Molpadiid Molpadia magdae has a prickly cover of irregular table ossicle spires and fusiform table discs in both body wall and tail. Staurocucumis liouvillei (Vaney) is a “species complex”.
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Authors and Affiliations

O’loughlin P. Mark
Anna Stępień
Marek Kuźniak
Didier Van Den Spiegel
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Abstract

Long term changes (46 years) in the a bundance of pygoscelid penguins breeding populations and nests distribution in the Lions Rump (King George Island) colony were investigated in three time intervals, according to previously published two censuses and one original study conducted in 2010. At that time a detailed colony map based on the GIS system was made. Results of this study showed different trends for each investigated species. In the last three decades Adélie penguin breeding populations showed strong declining tendencies (69.61%). In contrast, the population of gentoo penguins represents the reverse trend, increasing 171.85% over the same period. Observed changes in both penguin population sizes are reflected in the different spatial and geographic distribution of their nests. The population changes observed at the Lions Rump colony are consistent with the relevant pygoscelid penguin tendencies in the western Antarctic Peninsula region. Breeding penguin population dynamics at Lions Rump area with a minimal disturbance by human activity may well illustrate a natural response of those birds to environmental changes in the Antarctic.
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Authors and Affiliations

Małgorzata Korczak-Abshire
Michał Węgrzyn
Piotr J. Angiel
Maja Lisowska

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