Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research

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Polish Polar Research | 2010 | No 4 |

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Abstract

Adamussium jonkersi sp. nov. is described from the Late Oligocene Destruction Bay Formation, Wrona Buttress area, King George Island (South Shetlands), West Antarctica. The unit, characterized by volcanic sandstone, is a shallow marine succession deposited in a moderate- to high-energy environment. The thin-shelled pectinids, collected from the lower part of the unit, are preserved mostly as complete valves. Shell thickness, sculpture pattern and umbonal angle suggest a free-living, inactive swimming life habit.
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Authors and Affiliations

Fernanda Quaglio
Rowan Jane Whittle
Andrzej Gaździcki
Simões Marcello Guimarães
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Abstract

Adult females of a predatory fish, the blackfin icefish, Chaenocephalus aceratus examined at the South Shetland Islands and South Orkney Islands were by several orders of magnitude more infected with Acanthocephala than the males and immature females. Such phenomenon has not been observed in the neritic zone at South Georgia. Cystacanths of Corynosoma hamanni and Corynosoma pseudohamanni were the dominant parasites in Admiralty Bay, whereas Corynosoma bullosum was the dominant in the open sea off the South Shetland Islands and South Georgia, and in the sub-coastal waters off the South Orkney Islands. However, the dominance of C. bullosum was observed in several hosts in Admiralty Bay and the co-dominance of C. bullosum, C. hamanni, and C. pseudohamanni in one mature female in the neritic zone at the South Shetland Islands. Probably, these fish previously lived in the open sea. Cystacanths of Corynosoma arctocephali and Corynosoma shackletoni occurred in the fish in Admiralty Bay and off South Georgia. The former parasite was present also off the South Orkney Islands. One cystacanth of Andracantha baylisi was found off South Georgia. Two echinorhynchids, Aspersentis megarhynchus and Metacanthocephalus dalmori, occurred in the alimentary tracts of the fish caught in Admiralty Bay and one specimen of Echinorhynchus petrotschenkoi off the South Shetland Islands. The highest infection, amounting to 816 acanthocephalans, was found in a mature female in Admiralty Bay. One cystacanth of C. hamanni occurred in a single immature fish caught in the sub-coastal area off Deception Island.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zdzisław Laskowski
Krzysztof Zdzitowiecki
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Abstract

Hornsund, an Arctic fjord in the west coast of Spitsbergen (Svalbard), was selected as All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (ATBI) site under EU 5th Framework Concerted Action BIOMARE (2000–2002), especially due to its pristine, undisturbed natural character. On the base of large material (89 stations located throughout the fjord and 129 Van Veen grab samples) collected during cruises of RV Oceania in July in 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 and literature search a comprehensive list of species recorded within Hornsund area, on the soft bottom with depth range of 30–250 m is provided. Over 220 species were identified including 93 species of Polychaeta, 62 species of Mollusca and 58 species of Crustacea. Species list is supported by information on the zoogeographical status, body length and biological traits of dominant species. Need for further research on Hornsund soft bottom fauna with more sampling effort is highlighted.
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Authors and Affiliations

Monika Kędra
Sławomira Gromisz
Radomir Jaskuła
Joanna Legeżyńska
Barbara Maciejewska
Edyta Malec
Artur Opanowski
Karolina Ostrowska
Maria Włodarska-Kowalczuk
Jan Marcin Węsławski
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Abstract

The thermal, anemometric and bioclimatic conditions on the topoclimatic scale were investigated in the summer season in the EbbaValley region in central Spitsbergen. Eight measurement sites, representing different ecosystems and different types of active surfaces typical of Spitsbergen, were chosen and automatic, hourly recorded, measurements were per− formed at the sites between 11 and 25 of July 2009. The analysis of the spatial distribution of the air temperature and thewind−chill temperature, both for the dayswith radiation and non−ra− diation weather, indicates that the most favorable regions in the interior of Spitsbergen are those situated in the shielded central parts of the valleys and in the lower parts of the slopes with southern exposure. The thermal and wind conditions are definitely less favorable at the tops of elevations and on the glacier. Large differences between the air temperature and the wind−chill temperature were noted, particularly during the unfavorable non−radiation weather, on the glacier and on open peaks due to a large horizontal and vertical wind−chill temperature gradient. The thermal inversions observed in the Ebba Valley in July 2009 were not of the typi− cal, glacier katabatic wind origin. They appeared during the western air circulation, which brings advection of cooled air from above the cold waters of Petunia Bay. The cold air pene− trates into the valley and pushes upwards themass of warmer air in the valley, creating a rather thin inversion layer, whose upper edge is marked with thin Stratus clouds.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ewa Bednorz
Leszek Kolendowicz
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Abstract

Modern hydrology of a typical Arctic fjord (Hornsund, SW Spitsbergen, Sval− bard) was investigated and compared with commonly used in paleoceanography proxies: benthic foraminiferal assemblages and their stable isotope (18O and 13C) composition. The benthic foraminifera from Hornsund comprised 45 species and 28 genera. Their spatial variations follow the zonation pattern, resulting from the influence of Atlantic water at the fjord mouth and glacial meltwaters at the fjord head. At the mouth of the fjord, the total number of species and the contribution of agglutinating species were the highest. In the in− ner part of fjord, the foraminiferal faunas were poor in species and individuals, and aggluti− nating species were absent. “Living” (stained) foraminifera were found to be common throughout the short sediment cores (~10 cm long) studied. The stable isotope values of 18O and 13C were measured on tests of four species: Elphidium excavatum forma clavata, Cassidulina reniforme, Nonionellina labradorica and Cibicides lobatulus. The results con− firmed the importance of species−specific vital effects, particularly in the case of C. loba− tulus. The variability in the isotopic composition measured on different individuals within a single sample are comparable to isotopic composition of the same species test between sam− pling stations. The temperatures and bottom water salinities calculated from 18O values in different foraminifera tests mirrored those recorded for bottom waters in the central and outer fjords relatively well. However, in the case of the inner fjord, where winter−cooled bottom waters were present, the calculated values from 18O were systematically higher by about 2C. The obtained results imply that particular caution must be taken in interpretation of fjord benthic foraminifera assemblages in high resolution studies and in selection of ma− terial for isotope analyses and their interpretation in cores from inner fjords or silled fjords, where winter−cooled waters may be present.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marek Zajączkowski
Witold Szczuciński
Birgit Plessen
Patrycja Jernas

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