Applied sciences

Archives of Thermodynamics


Archives of Thermodynamics | 2022 | vol. 43 | No 1

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Local wind conditions can vary strongly depending on the landmark and vegetation, as well as on the skyline of the buildings in an urban surrounding. Weather, season and time of day influence the yield of electric power. In order to promote the use of small wind turbines as an alternative to photovoltaic power generation, design optimization for locationoptimized small wind turbines was carried out. In this work, we want to concentrate on vertical axis wind turbines. Experimental studies, as well as numerical simulations, have been conducted. On the one hand, bionically optimized core structures will be integrated and implemented in the hybrid material of the turbine blades. Several optimization attempts have been examined for single blades. Detailed simulative investigations with large eddy simulations improve the aerodynamic behaviour of the new rotor design. Finally, based on the results of the studies and investigations, a new rotor will be manufactured and tested experimentally in the wind tunnel. A comparison with the reference system from the first part of the paper shows the improvements and effectiveness of the measures and processes investigated.
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Authors and Affiliations

Daniel Lehser-Pfeffermann
Alexander Hamman
Frank Ulrich Rückert

  1. University of Applied Sciences Saarbrücken (htw saar), Faculty of Economic Sciences, Campus Rotenbühl, Waldhausweg 14, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany
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In the presented work Egorov’s approach (adding a source term to the ω-equation in the k-! model, which mimics the damping of turbulence close to a solid wall) was implemented in on the subclass of shear stress transport models. Hence, turbulence damping is available for all shear stress transport type models, including hybrid models that are based on the ω-equation. It is shown that turbulence damping improves the prediction of the axial velocity profile not only for Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes simulation but also for detached eddy simulation and delayed detached eddy simulation models. Furthermore, it leads to a more realistic estimation of the pressure drop and, hence, to a more correct prediction of the liquid level. In this paper, simulation results for four different turbulence models are presented and validated by comparison with experimental data. Furthermore, the influence of the magnitude of the damping factor on the pressure drop in the channel is investigated for a variety of different gas-to-liquid flow rate ratios. These investigations show that higher gas-to-liquid flow rate ratios require higher damping factors to correctly predict the pressure drop. In the end, advice is formulated on how an appropriate damping factor can be determined for a specific test case.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jiri Polansky
Sonja Schmelter

  1. Czech Technical University in Prague, Jugoslávských partyzánu 1580/3, 160 00 Prague 6 – Dejvice, Czech Republic
  2. Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestraße 2-12, D-10587 Berlin-Charlottenburg, Germany
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Paper is considering the purpose and the process of development of last stage blade for intermediate pressure module of 13K215 steam turbine. In the last 20–30 years most of the steam turbine manufacturers were focused on improving such a turbine mainly by upgrading low pressure module. In a result of such a modernization technology were changed from impulse to reaction. The best results of upgrading were given by developing low pressure last stage blade. With some uncertainty and based on state of art knowledge, it can be stand that improving of this part of steam turbine is close to the end. These above indicators show an element on which future research should be focused on – in the next step it should be intermediate pressure module. In the primary design the height of intermediate pressure last stage blade was 500 mm but because of change of technology this value was decreased to 400 mm. When to focus on reaction technology, the height of the last stage blade is related to output power and efficiency. Considered here is the checking the possibility of implementing blades, in a reaction technology, higher than 400 mm and potentially highest. Article shows a whole chosen methodology of topic described above. It leads through the reasons of research, limitations of 13K215 steam turbine, creation of three-dimensional models, fluid flow calculations, mechanical integrity calculations and proposed solutions of design.
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Authors and Affiliations

Radoslaw Bondyra
Jan Przytulski
Krzysztof Dominiczak

  1. GE Power Ltd, Stoczniowa 2, 82-300 Elblag, Poland
  2. Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80-231 Gdansk, Poland
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The results of the gas-dynamic calculation of the low-pressure cylinder flow part of the K-220-44 type steam turbine intended for operation at nuclear power plants are presented. The ways of the flow part improvement were determined. Some of those ways include the use of innovative approaches that were not previously used in steam turbines. The design of the new flow part was carried out on the basis of a comprehensive methodology implemented in the IPMFlow software package. The methodology includes gas-dynamic calculations of various levels of complexity, as well as methods for analytical construction of the spatial shape of the blade tracts based on a limited number of parameterized values. The real thermodynamic properties of water and steam were taken into account in 3D calculations of turbulent flows. At the final step, end-to-end 3D calculations of the lowpressure cylinder that consists of 5 stages were performed. The technology of parallel computing was applied in those calculations. It is shown that due to the application of innovative solutions, a significant increase in efficiency can be achieved in the developed low-pressure cylinder.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrii Rusanov
Viktor Subotin
Viktor Shvetsov
Roman Rusanov
Serhii Palkov
1 2
Ihor Palkov
1 2
Marina Chugay

  1. The A.N. Podgorny Institute for Mechanical Engineering Problems, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Pozharsky 2/10, 61046 Kharkiv, Ukraine
  2. JSC “Ukrainian Energy Machines” Moskovsky 199, 61037 Kharkiv, Ukraine
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Artificial neural networks are gaining popularity thank to their fast and accurate response paired with low computing power requirements. They have been proven as a method for compressor performance prediction with satisfactory results. In this paper a new approach of artificial neural networks modelling is evaluated. The auxiliary parameter of ‘relative stability margin Z’ was introduced and used in learning process. This approach connects two methods of compressor modelling such as neuralnetworks and auxiliary parameter utilization. Two models were created, one with utilization of the ‘relative stability margin Z’ as a direct indication of surge margin of any estimated condition, and other with standard compressor parameters. The results were compared by determination of fitting, interpolation and extrapolation capabilities of both approaches. The artificial neural networks used during the process was a two-layer feed-forward neural-network with Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm with Bayesian regularization. The experimental data was interpolated to increase the amount of learning data for the neural network. With the two models created, capabilities of this relatively simple type of neural-network to approximate compressor map was also assessed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sergiusz Michał Loryś
Marek Orkisz

  1. Hamilton Sundstrand Poland / Pratt & Whitney AeroPower Rzeszów, Hetmanska 120, 35-078 Rzeszów, Poland
  2. Rzeszow University of Technology, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Powstanców Warszawy 8, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
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Air pollution has a serious impact on the health of human beings and is a major cause of death worldwide every year. Out of the many sources of air pollution, the smoke generated from household combustion devices is very dangerous due to the incomplete combustion of fuel. Women from rural areas suffer a lot due to this harmful smoke. Diseases like cancer, throat, and lung infection occur in adults and children due to inhalation of this smoke. The traditional chulha used by rural women is operated by using cow dung, straw, and wood, and the air is blown manually by using small metallic pipes. This paper presents the design and development of an innovative stove to maximize flame temperature and minimize air pollution to overcome the health-related issues of rural women. A smokeless stove is presented, in which wood, straw, and cow dung are taken as primary fuel, and superheated steam as a secondary oxidizer for its operation. In this stove, a forced draft is created by the provision of a small fan, which is operated by solar power thus eliminating the need of creating a forced draft manually by the cook which makes this innovative stove superior to the traditional chulha. Owing to the provision of superheated steam, the flame temperature as well as the burning efficiency increases. The cooking time is reduced due to higher flame temperature as compared to the liquefied petroleum gas stove. The main objective of this work is to minimize air pollution and provide a smoke-free environment to the people using such devices as this innovative stove offers complete combustion of fuel. The flame temperature of the designed stove ranges from 595˚C to 700˚C and its thermal efficiency is 10–17% higher than that of the traditional chulha. The design of this stove is unique, and its maintenance cost is also much less.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ramesh Chandra Nayak
Manmatha K. Roul
Prateek Debadarsi Roul

  1. Synergy Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar – 752101, Odisha, India
  2. GITA Autonomous College, Bhubaneswar – 752054, Odisha, India
  3. Odisha University of Technology and Research, Bhubaneswar – 751003, Odisha, India
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In this paper, the logarithmic mean temperature difference method is used to determine the heat power of a tube-in-tube exchanger. Analytical solutions of the heat balance equations for the exchanger are presented. The considerations are illustrated by an example solution of the problem. In particular, the heat power of the tube-in-tube heat exchanger is determined taking into account the variants of work in the co-current and counter-current mode. Apart from the analytical solutions, appropriate numerical calculations in Matlab environment have been carried out.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kazimierz Rup

  1. Cracow University of Technology, al. Jana Pawła II 37, Cracow, Poland
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This paper presents the influence of cooling water regulation on power plant net efficiency. It was examined whether, for the non-nominal low-pressure turbine load, it is justified to reduce the cooling water pump load, and how it would affect the unit net efficiency. Calculations for two types of power units were carried out: with condensing and extractioncondensing turbine. The tested condensing power plant consists of three surface condensers. The calculation included four condensers’ connections set up on the cooling water side to check how the cooling water system pressure drop affects the net unit performance. The result has confirmed that implementing serial connection decreases net efficiency when cooling water flow regulation is used, but the mixed connection should be applied when pump load is not controlled. It was proved that the cooling water flow control gives a profit for both units. Net efficiency for combined heat and power plant can be improved by 0.1–0.5 pp, the gain is remarkable below 60% of the low-pressure turbine part load. Flow control implementation in the unit with condensing turbine water control gives a similar profit just below 80% of the turbine load. Next, an influence of the additional limitations of a cooling water system (minimal total pump head, cooling tower) affecting the feasibility of implementing the water control has been considered. Applying a multi-cell forced draft cooling tower does not have a significant impact on results, but when a natural draft cooling tower is used, the flow control range is strongly reduced.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ewa Dobkiewicz-Wieczorek

  1. Silesian University of Technology Department of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery, Konarskiego 18, 44-100, Gliwice, Poland
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This paper presents a test stand equipped, among others, with two boilers intended for the combustion of solid fuels. The first is a single-fuel boiler designed to burn wood pellets only. The second is a multi-fuel boiler intended for the combustion of mainly hard coal (basic fuel) with the grain size of 0.005–0.025 m. Wood pellets can also be fired in this boiler, which in such a case are treated as a substitute fuel. There is a developed and verified algorithm for the control of the multi-fuel boiler operation in a wide range of loads for the basic fuel. However, for the substitute fuel (wood pellets) there are no documented and confirmed results of such testing. The paper presents selected results of testing performed during the combustion of wood pellets in a multi-fuel automatically stoked boiler. Several measuring series were carried out, for which optimal operating conditions were indicated. These conditions may serve as the basis for the development of the boiler operation control algorithm. A detailed analysis was carried out of the flue gas temperatures obtained at the outlet of the boiler combustion chamber and of the contents of carbon monoxide and oxygen in the boiler flue gases.
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Authors and Affiliations

Wiesław Zima
Grzegorz Ojczyk

  1. Cracow University of Technology, Department of Energy, al. Jana Pawła II 37, 31-864 Kraków, Poland
  2. MTHE Modern Technologies in Heating Engineering, Młynska-Boczna 7/2, 31-470 Kraków, Poland
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This paper presents the experimental investigation of an earthto- air heat exchanger for heating purposes in the Patna region of India, using an experimental test rig. In the view of the author, real field experiments have several limitations such as lack of repeatability and uncontrolled conditions. It also takes more time for the response of parameters that depends on nature and climate. Moreover, earth-to-air heat exchangers may be expensive to fabricate and require more land area. Thus, in this work authors executed their experimental work in indoor controllable environments to investigate the thermal performance of an earth-to-air heat exchanger. The actual soil conditions were created and maintained the temperature at 26˚C throughout the soil in the vicinity of pipes. Three horizontal PVC pipes of equal lengths and diameters of 0.0285 m, 0.038 m and 0.0485 m were installed in the test rig. The experiments were performed for different inlet air velocities at ambient air temperature. This study acknowledges that the maximum rise in outlet temperature occurs at a lower speed for smaller pipes. Also, the maximum effectiveness of 0.83 was observed at 2 m/s for the smallest diameter pipe.
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Authors and Affiliations

Saif Nawaz Ahmad
Om Prakash

  1. National Institute of Technology Patna, Bihar 800005, India

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[2] Zhou, Y., Bi, H., & Wang, H. (2023). Influence of the primary components of the high-speed train on fire heat release rate. Archives of Thermodynamics, 44(1), 37–61.

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[5] Pourghasemi, B., & Fathi, N. (2023). Validation and verification analyses of turbulent forced convection of Na and NaK in miniature heat sinks. ASME 2023 Verification, Validation, and Uncertainty Quantification Symposium, 17-19 May, Baltimore, USA.
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