Applied sciences

Opto-Electronics Review


Opto-Electronics Review | 2019 | vol. 27 | No 3

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In this paper, we theoretically analyze the slow-light π-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating (π-FBG) and its applications for single and multipoint/quasi-distributed sensing. Coupled-mode theory (CMT) and transfer matrix method (TMM) are used to establish the numerical modeling of slow-light π-FBG. The impact of slow-light FBG parameters, such as grating length (L), index change (Δn), and loss coefficient (α) on the spectral properties of π-FBG along with strain and thermal sensitivities are presented. Simulation results show that for the optimum grating parameters L = 50 mm, Δn = 1.5×10−4, and α = 0.10 m-1, the proposed slow-light π-FBG is characterized with a peak transmissivity of 0.424, the maximum delay of 31.95 ns, strain sensitivity of 8.380 με-1, and temperature sensitivity of 91.064 °C-1. The strain and temperature sensitivity of proposed slow-light π-FBG is the highest as compared to the slow-light sensitivity of apodized FBGs reported in the literature. The proposed grating have the overall full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.2245 nm, and the FWHM of the Bragg wavelength peak transmissivity is of 0.0798 pm. The optimized slow-light π-FBG is used for quasi-distributed sensing applications. For the five-stage strain quasi-distributed sensing network, a high strain dynamic range of value 1469 με is obtained for sensors wavelength spacing as small as 2 nm. In the case of temperature of quasi-distributed sensing network, the obtained dynamic range is of 133°C. For measurement system with a sufficiently wide spectral range, the π-FBGs wavelength grid can be broadened which results in substantial increase of dynamic range of the system.

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Authors and Affiliations

K.M. Dwivedi
T. Osuch
G. Trivedi
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This paper presents a video encoding method in which noise is encoded using a novel parametric model representing spectral envelope and spatial distribution of energy. The proposed method has been experimentally assessed using video test sequences in a practical setup consisting of a simple, real-time noise reduction technique and High Efficiency Video Codec (HEVC). The attained results show that the use of the proposed parametric modelling of noise can improve the subjective quality of reconstructed video by approximately 1.8 Mean Opinion Scope (MOS) points (in 11-point scale) related to the classical video coding. Moreover, the present work confirms results attained in the previous works that the usage of even sole noise reduction prior to the encoding provides quality increase.

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Authors and Affiliations

O. Stankiewicz
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The idea of adopting the space domain as the next frontier for optical communication has received increasing attention in the last few years. Optical devices are the integral parts of a mode division multiplexing (MDM) transmission. Therefore, conducting an intensive study on the devices is paramount to the successful realization of the overall system. This paper presents a review of the recent advances in the inline components of an MDM system, consisting of mode converters, spatial (de) multiplexers, optical amplifiers, and few-mode fibers (FMFs). Also presented are different mode conversion and multiplexing schemes. Recent techniques of minimizing differential mode gain (DMG) in the optical amplifiers are also reviewed. The review covers other types of amplification schemes and their current standing in the MDM system. These include optical semiconductor amplifiers (OSAs), and the Raman amplifiers (RAs). Finally, the review also highlights the role of FMF, multicore fiber and their relationship with fan-in/fan-out devices.

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Authors and Affiliations

R.I. Sabitu
N.G. Khan
A. Malekmohammadi
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A new approach to passive electromagnetic modelling of coupled–cavity quantum cascade lasers is presented in this paper. One of challenges in the rigorous analysis of such eigenvalue problem is its large size as compared to wavelength and a high quality factor, which prompts for substantial computational efforts. For those reasons, it is proposed in this paper to consider such a coupled-cavity Fabry-Perot resonant structure with partially transparent mirrors as a two-port network, which can be considered as a deterministic problem. Thanks to such a novel approach, passive analysis of an electrically long laser can be split into a cascade of relatively short sections having low quality factor, thus, substantially speeding up rigorous electromagnetic analysis of the whole quantum cascade laser. The proposed method allows to determine unequivocally resonant frequencies of the structure and the corresponding spectrum of a threshold gain. Eventually, the proposed method is used to elaborate basic synthesis rules of coupled–cavity quantum cascade lasers.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Krysicki
B. Salski
P. Kopyt
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The paper reports on the barrier mid-wave infrared InAs/InAsSb (xSb = 0.4) type-II superlattice detector operating below thermoelectrical cooling. AlAsSb with Sb composition, xSb = 0.97; barrier doping, ND < 2×1016 cm−3 leading to valence band offset below 100 meV in relation to the active layer doping, ND = 5×1015 cm−3 was proved to be proper material not introducing extra barrier in valence band in the analyzed temperature range in XBn architectures. The detectivity of the simulated structure was assessed at the level of ∼ 1011 Jones at T ∼ 100 K assuming absorber thickness, d = 3 μm. The detector’s architecture for high frequency response operation, τs = 420 ps (T ∼ 77 K) was presented with a reduced active layer of d = 1 μm.

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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Martyniuk
Krystian Michalczewski
T.Y. Tsai
C.H. Wu
Y.R. Wu
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We present an overview of our technological achievements in the implementation of detector structures based on mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) heterostructures and nanostructures for IR and THz spectral ranges. We use a special MBE design set for the epitaxial layer growth on (013) GaAs substrates with ZnTe and CdTe buffer layers up to 3” in diameter with the precise ellipsometric monitoring in situ. The growth of MCT alloy heterostructures with the optimal composition distribution throughout the thickness allows for the realization of different types of many-layered heterostructures and quantum wells to prepare the material for fabricating single- or dual-band IR and THz detectors.

We also present the two-color broad-band bolometric detectors based on the epitaxial MCT layers that are sensitive in 150–300-GHz subterahertz and infrared ranges from 3 to 10 μm, which operate at the ambient or liquid nitrogen temperatures as photoconductors, as well as the detectors based on planar HgTe quantum wells. The design and dimensions of THz detector antennas are optimized for reasonable detector sensitivity values. A special diffraction limited optical system for the detector testing was designed and manufactured. We represent here the THz images of objects hidden behind a plasterboard or foam plastic packaging, obtained at the radiation frequencies of 70, 140, and 275 GHz, respectively.

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Authors and Affiliations

S.A. Dvoretsky
N.N. Mikhailov
V.G. Remesnik
Yu.G. Sidorov
V.A. Shvets
D.G. Ikusov
V.S. Varavin
J.V. Gumenjuk-Sichevska
A.G. Golenkov
I.O. Lysiuk
Z.F. Tsybrii
A.V. Shevchik-Shekera
F.F. Sizov
A.V. Latyshev
A.L. Aseev
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The paper presents a new construction of an optical pulse amplitude monitoring unit (PAMU) used in a transceiver of Free Space Optics. It consists of a buffer, constant fraction discriminator (CFD), delay line, and a sample and hold (S&H) circuit. In the design FSO system, the PAMU provides to monitor transmitted and received optical pulses with duration of few ns. Using this device, there is no need to apply complicated and expensive digitizing systems. The unique aspect of its construction is to control S&H circuit using the CFD. The lab model of this unit allows to perform tests to define some virtues of constant fraction and leading-edge discriminators. The results were implemented in optical signal monitoring of FSO system. The unit was prepared to cooperate with two different detection modules. Using this setup, it was possible, e.g. to determine operation characteristics of FSO transmitter, identify interruption of transmission, and control light power to provide high safety of work.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Achtenberg
J. Mikołajczyk
D. Szabra
A. Prokopiuk
Z. Bielecki
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The emergence of solar cells on flexible and bendable substrates has made the printing process a ubiquitous tool for the fabrication of these devices. The various printing techniques available now such as inkjet, screen and flexography offer cost- effectiveness, user-friendliness and suitability for mass production. While downscaling the fill factor and efficiency of organic solar cells. A multilayered structure, the combination of different printing techniques avails the variety of thickness and resolution required for each layer in the production of an organic solar cell. In this review article, we discuss the suitability of the inkjet and screen printing processes to produce organic solar cells. We also discuss various challenges involved in the fabrication of organic solar cells using these two techniques and the possible solutions for the same. We also provide an analogy that both processes share. Further, we consider future possibilities of combining these printing technologies to produce organic solar cells to improve device performance.

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Authors and Affiliations

S. Ganesan
S. Mehta
D. Gupta

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OPTO-ELECTRONICS REVIEW is an open access journal. This involves the payment of an article publishing charge (APC) by the authors, their institution or funding body. We make the article freely available immediately upon publication on PAS Jornals platform (

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Opto-Electronics Review was established in 1992 for the publication of scientific papers concerning optoelectronics and photonics materials, system and signal processing. This journal covers the whole field of theory, experimental verification, techniques and instrumentation and brings together, within one journal, contributions from a wide range of disciplines. Papers covering novel topics extending the frontiers in optoelectronics and photonics are very encouraged. The main goal of this magazine is promotion of papers presented by European scientific teams, especially those submitted by important team from Central and Eastern Europe. However, contributions from other parts of the world are by no means excluded.

Articles are published in OPELRE in the following categories:

-invited reviews presenting the current state of the knowledge,

-specialized topics at the forefront of optoelectronics and photonics and their applications,

-refereed research contributions reporting on original scientific or technological achievements,

-conference papers printed in normal issues as invited or contributed papers.

Authors of review papers are encouraged to write articles of relevance to a wide readership including both those established in this field of research and non-specialists working in related areas. Papers considered as “letters” are not published in OPELRE.

Opto-Electronics Review is published quarterly as a journal of the Association of Polish Electrical Engineers (SEP) and Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS) in cooperation with the Military University of Technology and under the auspices of the Polish Optoelectronics Committee of SEP.

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