Applied sciences

Opto-Electronics Review


Opto-Electronics Review | 2018 | vol. 26 | No 4

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Recent advances in THz detection with the use of CMOS technology have shown that this option has the potential to be a leading method of producing low-cost THz sensors with integrated readout systems. This review paper, based on authors’ years of experience, presents strengths and weaknesses of this solution. The article gives examples of some hints, regarding radiation coupling and readout systems. It shows that silicon CMOS technology is well adapted to the production of inexpensive imaging systems for sub-THz frequencies. As an example paper presents the demonstrator of a multipixel Si-CMOS THz spectroscopic system allowing for chemical identification of lactose. The THz detectors embedded in this system were manufactured using the CMOS process.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Marczewski
D. Coquillat
W. Knap
C. Kolacinski
P. Kopyt
K. Kucharski
J. Lusakowski
D. Obrebski
D. Tomaszewski
D. Yavorskiy
P. Zagrajek
R. Ryniec
N. Palka
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Range-gated-imaging system, which can be used to eliminate backscatter in strong scattering environments, is based on two high speed technologies. It uses high power, ultra-short pulse laser as the light source. And it opens the optical gate of an ICCD camera with a micro-channel-plate image intensifier in a very short time while the laser pulses reflected by the object is coming back to the ICCD camera. Using this range-gated-imaging technology, the effect of scattered light can be reduced and a clear image is obtained.

In this paper, the test results of the range-gated-imaging system under dense aerosol environments, which simulates environments in the reactor containment building when the severe accident of the nuclear power plant occurred, are described. To evaluate the observation performance of the range-gated-imaging system under such dense fog environment, we made a test facility. Fog particles are sprayed into the test facility until fog concentration is reached to the postulated concentration level of the severe accident of the nuclear power plant. At such dense fog concentration conditions, we compared and evaluated the observation performances of the range-gated-imaging system and the CCD camera.

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Authors and Affiliations

J.W. Cho
Y.S. Choi
K.M. Jeong
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The utmost limit performance of interband cascade detectors optimized for the longwave range of infrared radiation is investigated in this work. Currently, materials from the III–V group are characterized by short carrier lifetimes limited by Shockley-Read-Hall generation and recombination processes. The maximum carrier lifetime values reported at 77 K for the type-II superlattices InAs/GaSb and InAs/InAsSb in a longwave range correspond to ∼200 and ∼400 ns. We estimated theoretical detectivity of interband cascade detectors assuming above carrier lifetimes and a value of ∼1–50 μs reported for a well-known HgCdTe material. It has been shown that for room temperature the limit value of detctivity is of ∼3–4×1010 cmHz1/2/W for the optimized detector operating at the wavelength range ∼10 μm could be reached.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Hackiewicz
Piotr Martyniuk
Jarosław Rutkowski
Tetiana Manyk
J. Mikołajczyk
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We propose a new integrated demultiplexer model using the two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D PC) through the hexagonal resonant cavity (HRC) for the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standard. The integrated model of demultiplexer for both 25 GHz and 50 GHz has been designed for the first time. The demultiplexer consists of bus input waveguide, drop waveguide, Hexagonal Resonant Cavity (HRC), 6 Air Hole Filter (6-AHF), 7 Air Hole Filter (7-AHF). The 7-AHF is used to filter 25GHz wavelength, and the 6-AHF filter is used to filter 50 GHz wavelength. The Q-factor on the designed demultiplexer is flexible based on the idea of increasing the number of air holes between drop waveguide and resonant cavity. The demultiplexer is designed to drop maximum 8 resonant wavelengths. One side of demultiplexer is able to drop 50 GHz ITU standard wavelengths, which are of 1556.3 nm, 1556.7 nm, 1557.1 nm and 1557.5 nm, and further the other facet is able to drop 25 GHz wavelengths, which are of 1551.4 nm, 1551.6 nm, 1551.8 nm, and 1552.0 nm. The proposed demultiplexer may be carried out within the integrated dual system. This system is able to lessen the architecture cost and the size is miniaturized substantially.

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Authors and Affiliations

V.R. Balaji
M. Murugan
S. Robinson
R. Nakkeeran
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This paper proposes a method for offline accurate ball tracking for short volleyball actions in sport halls. Our aim is to detect block touches on the ball and to determinate accurate trajectory and impact positions of the ball to support referees. The proposed method is divided into two stages, namely training and ball tracking, and is based on background subtraction. Application of the Gaussian mixture model has been used to estimate a background, and a high-speed camera with a capture rate of 180 frames per second and a resolution of 1920 × 1080 are used for motion capture. In sport halls significant differences in light intensity occur between each sequence frame. To minimize the influence of these light changes, an additional model is created and template matching is used for accurate determination of ball positions when the ball contour in the foreground image is distorted. We show that this algorithm is more accurate than other methods used in similar systems. Our light intensity change model eliminates almost all pixels added to images of moving objects owing to sudden changes in intensity. The average accuracy achieved in the validation process is of 0.57 pixel. Our algorithm accurately determined 99.8% of all ball positions from 2000 test frames, with 25.4 ms being the average time for a single frame analysis. The algorithm presented in this paper is the first stage of referee support using a system of many cameras and 3D trajectories.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Kurowski
K. Szelag
W. Zaluski
R. Sitnik
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Results of the studies of optical properties of anti-reflective glasses with various texturization patterns, which were used as a coating for crystalline silicon solar cells, are presented. It was found that glass samples sorted by their optical transmittance demonstrated the same order as when sorted by their solar-cell short-circuit current enhancement parameter. The value of the latter depended on the parameters of texturization, such as the surface density of inclusions and their profile, and the depth of etching pits. A 2% relative increase of the solar cell efficiency was obtained for the best glass sample for null degree angle of incidence, proving enhanced light trapping properties of the studied glass.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Pociask-Bialy
K.D. Mynbaev
M. Kaczmarzyk
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A simple and robust method to generate a dual-wavelength mode-locked laser using a tunable Mach-Zehnder filter (TMZF) and a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) based saturable absorber (SA) is proposed and demonstrated. The proposed laser uses a thulium-doped fiber for lasing in the two-micron region and exploits the interferometric spectrum of the TMZF to produce dual peaks with nearly equal magnitude. SWCNT based SA enables mode-locking at a threshold value of 150.4 mW with distinct dual-wavelength peaks at 1919.2 nm and 1963.7 nm. The peaks have a calculated pulse width of 1.8 ps and 1.6 ps, respectively with a repetition rate of 9.1 MHz with a relatively high optical-signal-to-noise ratio value of 59.1 dB. The output is also observed to remain unchanged over time, indicating high stability. The proposed laser has a promising application, particularly in ultrafast gas molecular spectroscopy and sensing.

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Authors and Affiliations

A.S. Sharbirin
M.Z. Samion
M.F. Ismail
H. Ahmad
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In the present investigation optical, electro-optical and dielectric properties have been measured for nematic liquid crystal (NLC) material 1550C which consists of 4’-(trans, trans-4-alkylbicyclohexyl) carbonates and 4’-(4-(trans,trans-4-alkyl)-4-cyanobicyclohexane, dispersed with fluorescent dye (Benzo 2,1,3 Thiadiazole) in two different concentrations. Photoluminescence has been enhanced for a dye dispersed system which is the key finding of this investigation. UV absorbance study has also been performed and found to be increased for composite system. Enhanced birefringence after dispersion of dye into pure NLC is also a prominent result of this investigation. Relative permittivity, threshold voltage and dielectric anisotropy have also been measured and found to be increased. The outcome of the present work may be very useful in the construction of liquid crystal displays (LCDs).

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Authors and Affiliations

G. Pathak
K. Agrahari
A. Roy
A. Srivastava
O. Strzezysz
K. Garbat
R. Manohar
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Spectral characteristics and amplitude tunability of a long period grating with a dual- resonance inside fiber loop mirror are studied in terms of applied stress caused by elongation. Inserting the polarization controller between grating and part of polarization maintaining fiber in the loop structure enables tuning of resonance and interferometric peaks. The maximum sensitivity of demonstrated sensor is of 1.943 dB/mε for the range of 1.1–4.4 mε. Combination of these two optical components allows to measure strain in a wider range comparing with sensors based on standard long period grating.

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Authors and Affiliations

R. Zawisza
L.R. Jaroszewicz
P. Mikulic
W.J. Bock
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We report on the absorption properties of polarization-insensitive transmissive and reflective metamaterial absorbers based on two planar aluminium periodic structures and SU-8 epoxy resist. These absorbers were investigated using numerical simulation and experimental methods in the terahertz range (below 2 THz). SU-8 is a very promising organic material for dielectric layers in planar metamaterials, because its application simplifies the process of fabricating these structures and significantly reduces the fabrication time. The experimental absorption of the metamaterial absorbers has narrowband characteristics that were consistent with the numerical simulations. Power flow analysis in the transmissive metamaterial unit cell shows that the absorption in the terahertz range occurs primarily in the SU-8 layer of the absorber.

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Authors and Affiliations

B. Grześkiewicz
A. Sierakowski
J. Marczewski
N. Pałka
E. Wolarz

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Opto-Electronics Review was established in 1992 for the publication of scientific papers concerning optoelectronics and photonics materials, system and signal processing. This journal covers the whole field of theory, experimental verification, techniques and instrumentation and brings together, within one journal, contributions from a wide range of disciplines. Papers covering novel topics extending the frontiers in optoelectronics and photonics are very encouraged. The main goal of this magazine is promotion of papers presented by European scientific teams, especially those submitted by important team from Central and Eastern Europe. However, contributions from other parts of the world are by no means excluded.

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Authors of review papers are encouraged to write articles of relevance to a wide readership including both those established in this field of research and non-specialists working in related areas. Papers considered as “letters” are not published in OPELRE.

Opto-Electronics Review is published quarterly as a journal of the Association of Polish Electrical Engineers (SEP) and Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS) in cooperation with the Military University of Technology and under the auspices of the Polish Optoelectronics Committee of SEP.

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