Applied sciences

Opto-Electronics Review


Opto-Electronics Review | 2021 | 29 | 3

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The compositional graded quaternary barriers (GQBs) instead of ternary/conventional quantum barriers (QBs) have been used to numerically enhance the efficiency of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode (LED). The performance of LED with GQBs is examined through carrier concentrations, energy band diagrams, radiative recombination, electron and hole flux, internal quantum efficiency (IQE), and emission spectrum. As a function of the operating current density, a considerable reduction in efficiency droop is observed in the device with composition-graded quaternary barriers as compared to the conventional structure. The efficiency droop in case of a conventional LED is ~77% which decreased to ~33% in case of the proposed structure. Moreover, the concentration of electrons and holes across the active region in case of the proposed structure is increased to ~156% and ~44%, respectively.
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  3. Usman, M., Malik, S. & Munsif, M. AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: Challenges and Opportunities. Luminescence 36, 294–305 (2021),
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  6. Usman, M., Malik, S., Khan, M. A. & Hirayama, H. Suppressing the efficiency droop in AlGaN-based UVB LEDs. Nanotechnology 32, 215703 (2021),
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Authors and Affiliations

Shahzeb Malik
Muhammad Usman
Masroor Hussain
Munaza Munsif
Sibghatullah Khan
Saad Rasheed
Shazma Ali

  1. Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi, 23460, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  2. Faculty of Computer Sciences and Engineering, Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi, 23460, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
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Universal filtered multi-carrier (UFMC) is being studied as the favourable waveforms supporting the visible light communication broadcasting systems. However, the UFMC system faces a serious performance degradation on the transmitter side due to its high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). High PAPR of the signal is an analytical intention parameter for mobile networks, and it is necessary to minimize it as much as possible. This paper focuses on the PAPR reduction of the UFMC scheme. An efficient hybrid method of the PAPR reduction has been proposed and analysed through the Matlab™ simulation. The proposed hybrid scheme consists of a mixture of the selected-mapping method and the discrete Hartley transform precoding for a UFMC system (SLM-DHT-P-UFMC). The simulation results show that the proposed hybrid system has a better PAPR reduction performance compared to traditional SLM-UFMC and DHT-P-UFMC systems. Hence, SLM-DHT-P-UFMC is considered to be the suggested scheme in visible light communication broadcasting systems.
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  1. Mohammed, N. A. & Elkarim, M. A. Exploring the effect of diffuse reflection on indoor localization systems based on RSSI-VLC. Opt. Express 23, 20297–20313 (2015).
  2. Gerzaguet, R. et al. The 5G candidate waveform race: a comparison of complexity and performance. EURASIP J. Wirel. Commun. Netw. 2017, 13 (2017).
  3. Ambatali, C. D. M. & Marciano, J. J. S. Performance evaluation of the UFMC scheme under various transmission impairments. in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Communication, Networks and Satellite (COMNETSAT) 24–28 (2017).
  4. Vakilian, V., Wild, T., Schaich, F., Ten Brink, S. & Frigon, J. F. Universal-filtered multi-carrier technique for wireless systems beyond LTE. in 2013 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps) 223–228 (2013).
  5. Naga Rani, P. & Santhi Rani, C. H. UFMC: The 5G modulation technique. in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research (ICCIC) (2016).
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  10. Baig, I. et al. A low PAPR DHT precoding based UFMC scheme for 5G communication systems. in 2019 6th International Conference on Control, Decision and Information Technologies (CoDIT) 425−428 (2019).
  11. Baig, I. et al. A Low PAPR universal filtered multi-carrier system for 5G machine type communications. in 2019 Wireless Days (WD) 1–4 (2019).
  12. Misra, J. & Mandal, R. Comparative analysis of PAPR reduction techniques in OFDM using precoding techniques. Int. J. Sci. Res. Dev. 3, 1041–1043 (2015).
  13. Sandoval, F., Poitau, G. & Gagnon, F. Hybrid peak-to-average power ratio reduction techniques: review and performance comparison. IEEE Access 5, 27145–27161 (2017).
  14. Zhang, Y., Liu, K. & Liu, Y. A Novel PAPR reduction algorithm based on SLM technique in UFMC systems. in 2018 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC Workshops) 178–183 (2018).
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Authors and Affiliations

Eslam M. Shalaby
E. Dessouky
Saleh Hussin

  1. Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, Higher Technological Institute, 10th of Ramadan City, Sharqia, 44629 Egypt
  2. Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering Menoufia University, Menoufia, 32511 Egypt
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Accurate determination of material parameters, such as carrier lifetimes and defect activation energy, is a significant problem in the technology of infrared detectors. Among many different techniques, using the time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy allows to determine the narrow energy gap materials, as well as their time dynamics. In this technique, it is possible to observe time dynamics of all processes in the measured sample as in a streak camera. In this article, the signal processing for the above technique for Hg(1-x)CdxTe with a composition x of about 0.3 which plays an extremely important role in the mid-infrared is presented. Machine learning algorithms based on the independent components analysis were used to determine components of the analyzed data series. Two different filtering techniques were investigated. In the article, it is shown how to reduce noise using the independent components analysis and what are the advantages, as well as disadvantages, of selected methods of the independent components analysis filtering. The proposed method might allow to distinguish, based on the analysis of photoluminescence spectra, the location of typical defect levels in HgCdTe described in the literature.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kacper Grodecki
Krzysztof Murawski
Jarosław Rutkowski
Andrzej Kowalewski
Jan Sobieski

  1. Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego St., Warsaw 00-908, Poland
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In this study, solar cells based on copper oxide and titanium dioxide were successfully manufactured using the reactive direct-current magnetron sputtering (DC-MS) technique with similar process parameters. TiO2/CuO, TiO2/Cu2O/CuO/Cu2O, and TiO2/Cu2O solar cells were manufactured via this process. Values of efficiencies, short-circuit current, short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, and maximum power of PV devices were investigated in the range of 0.02÷0.9%, 75÷350 µA, 75÷350 µA/cm2, 16÷550 mV, and 0.6÷27 µW, respectively. The authors compare solar cells reaching the best and the worst conversion efficiency results. Thus, only the two selected solar cells were fully characterized using I-V characteristics, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ellipsometry, Hall effect measurements, and quantum efficiency. The best conversion efficiency of a solar cell presented in this work is about three times higher in comparison with the authors’ previous PV devices.
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  9. Hussain, S. et al. Fabrication and photovoltaic characteristics of Cu2O/TiO2 thin film heterojunction solar cell. Thin Solid Films 522, 430–434 (2012).
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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Wisz
Paulina Sawicka-Chudy
Maciej Sibiński
Zbigniew Starowicz
Dariusz Płoch
Anna Góral
Mariusz Bester
Marian Cholewa
Janusz Woźny
Aleksandra Sosna-Głębska

  1. Institute of Physics, College of Natural Science, University of Rzeszów, 1 Pigonia St., 35-317 Rzeszów, Poland
  2. Department of Semiconductor and Optoelectronic Devices, Łódź University of Technology, 211/215 Wólczańska St., 90-924 Łódź, Poland
  3. Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Kraków, Poland
  4. Department of Semiconductor and Optoelectronic Devices, Łódź University of Technology, 211/215Wólczańska St., 90-924 Łódź, Poland

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Opto-Electronics Review was established in 1992 for the publication of scientific papers concerning optoelectronics and photonics materials, system and signal processing. This journal covers the whole field of theory, experimental verification, techniques and instrumentation and brings together, within one journal, contributions from a wide range of disciplines. Papers covering novel topics extending the frontiers in optoelectronics and photonics are very encouraged. The main goal of this magazine is promotion of papers presented by European scientific teams, especially those submitted by important team from Central and Eastern Europe. However, contributions from other parts of the world are by no means excluded.

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• A reviewer should be alert to potential ethical issues in the paper and should bring these to the attention of the editor, including any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which the reviewer has personal knowledge. Any statement, observation, derivation, or argument that had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation.

• Personal criticism is inappropriate.


Reproducing text from other papers without properly crediting the source (plagiarism) or producing many papers with almost the same content by the same authors (self-plagiarism) is not acceptable. Submitting the same results to more than one journal concurrently is unethical. Exceptions are the review articles. Authors may not present results obtained by others as if they were their own. Authors should acknowledge the work of others used in their research and cite publications that have influenced the direction and course of their study.

Plagiarism is not tolerated. All manuscripts submitted to Opto-Electronics Review will be checked for plagiarism (copying text or results from other sources) and self-plagiarism (duplicating substantial parts of authors’ own published work without giving the appropriate references) using the CrossCheck database (iThenticate plagiarism checker).

Duplicate submission

Simultaneous submissions of the same manuscript to different journals will not be tolerated. The submitted article will be removed without consideration.

Corrections and retractions

All authors have an obligation to inform and cooperate with journal editors to provide prompt retractions or correction of errors in published works.

• The journal will issue retractions if:

• There is clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g., data fabrication or honest error - miscalculation or experimental error);

• The findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission or justification (i.e., cases of redundant publication);

• It constitutes plagiarism;

• It reports unethical research.

• The journal will issue errata, if:

• A small portion of an otherwise reliable publication proves to be misleading (especially because of honest error);

• The author list is incorrect.

Other forms of misconduct include failure to meet clear ethical and legal requirements such as misrepresentation of interests, breach of confidentiality, lack of informed consent and abuse of research subjects or materials. Misconduct also includes improper dealing with infringements, such as attempts to cover up misconduct and reprisals on whistleblowers.

The primary responsibility for handling research misconduct is in the hands of those who employ the researchers. If a possible misconduct is brought to our attention, we will seek advice from the referees and the Editorial Board. If there is the evidence, we will resolve the matter by appropriate corrections in the printed and online journal; by refusing to consider an author's future work and by contacting affected authors and editors of other journals.

Human and Animal Rights

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed.

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