Applied sciences

Archives of Thermodynamics


Archives of Thermodynamics | 2010 | No 2 July

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Cooling of the hot gas path components plays a key role in modern gas turbines. It allows, due to efficiency reasons, to operate the machines with temperature exceeding components' melting point. The cooling system however brings about some disadvantages as well. If so, we need to enforce the positive effects of cooling and diminish the drawbacks, which influence the reliability of components and the whole machine. To solve such a task we have to perform an optimization which makes it possible to reach the desired goal. The task is approached in the 3D configuration. The search process is performed by means of the evolutionary approach with floatingpoint representation of design variables. Each cooling structure candidate is evaluated on the basis of thermo-mechanical FEM computations done with Ansys via automatically generated script file. These computations are parallelized. The results are compared with the reference case which is the C3X airfoil and they show a potential stored in the cooling system. Appropriate passage distribution makes it possible to improve the operation condition for highly loaded components. Application of evolutionary approach, although most suitable for such problems, is time consuming, so more advanced approach (Conjugate Heat Transfer) requires huge computational power. The analysis is based on original procedure which involves optimization of size and location of internal cooling passages of cylindrical shape within the airfoil. All the channels can freely move within the airfoil cross section and also their number can change. Such a procedure is original.

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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Nowak
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In the 21st century the way to increase the efficiency of new sources of energy is directly related with extended exploration of renewable energy. This modern tendency ensures the fuel economy needs to be realized with nature protection. The increasing of new power sources efficiency (cogeneration, trigeneration systems, fuel cells, photovoltaic systems) can be performed by application of solid sorption heat pumps, regrigerators, heat and cold accumulators, heat transformers, natural gas and hydrogen storage systems and efficient heat exchangers.

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Authors and Affiliations

L. Vasiliev
O. Filatova
A. Tsitovich
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The paper presents a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the transient processes which occur in the liquid flat-plate solar collector tubes. The proposed method considers the model of collector tube as one with distributed parameters. In the suggested method one tube of the collector is taken into consideration. In this model the boundary conditions can be time-dependent. The proposed model is based on solving the equation describing the energy conservation on the fluid side. The temperature of the collector tube wall is determined from the equation of transient heat conduction. The derived differential equations are solved using the implicit finite difference method of iterative character. All thermo-physical properties of the operating fluid and the material of the tube wall can be computed in real time. The time-spatial heat transfer coefficient at the working fluid side can be also computed on-line. The proposed model is suitable for collectors working in a parallel or serpentine tube arrangement. As an illustration of accuracy and effectiveness of the suggested method the computational verification was carried out. It consists in comparing the results found using the presented method with results of available analytic solutions for transient operating conditions. Two numerical analyses were performed: for the tube with temperature step function of the fluid at the inlet and for the tube with heat flux step function on the outer surface. In both cases the conformity of results was very good. It should be noted, that in real conditions such rapid changes of the fluid temperature and the heat flux of solar radiation, as it was assumed in the presented computational verification, do not occur. The paper presents the first part of the study, which aim is to develop a mathematical model for simulating the transient processes which occur in liquid flat-plate solar collectors. The experimental verification of the method is a second part of the study and is not presented in this paper. In order to perform this verification, the mathematical model would be completed with additional energy conservation equations. The experimental verification will be carry out in the close future.

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Authors and Affiliations

Wiesław Zima
Piotr Dziewa
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The paper investigates the possibility of utilisation of heat-recirculating systems for fuel conversions having low net thermal effect. The experimental part is conducted with an electrically heated heat exchanger. It is shown that heat-recirculating systems can operate under superadiabatic conditions. Their thermal characteristics are provided by means of the dependencies of heat recirculation ratio on process parameters. Further, the heat-recirculating catalytic combustion system is characterised via combustion bifurcation diagrams. The similarities and differences of both those heat-recirculating systems are qualitatively compared and explained. Bifurcation characteristics proves to be useful tools in concise description of practical complex heat-recirculating fuel conversion systems in energy generation.

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Authors and Affiliations

Wojciech Budzianowski
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This work presents an application possibility of sorption refrigerators driven by low temperature fluid for air conditioning of buildings. Thermodynamic models were formulated and absorption LiBr-water chiller with 10 kW cooling power as well as adsorption chiller with silica gel bed were investigated. Both of them are using water for desorption process with temperature Tdes = 80 °C. Coefficient of performance (COP) for both cooling cycles was analyzed in the same conditions of the driving heat source, cooling water Tc = 25 °C and temperature in evaporator Tevap = 5 °C. In this study, the computer software EES was used to investigate the performance of absorption heat pump system and its behaviour in configuration with geothermal heat source.

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Authors and Affiliations

Agnieszka Kuczyńska
Władysław Szaflik

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[2] Zhou, Y., Bi, H., & Wang, H. (2023). Influence of the primary components of the high-speed train on fire heat release rate. Archives of Thermodynamics, 44(1), 37–61.

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