Applied sciences

Opto-Electronics Review


Opto-Electronics Review | 2021 | 29 | 1

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Numerical analysis of the dark current (Jd) in the type-II superlattice (T2SL) barrier (nBn) detector operated at high temperatures was presented. Theoretical calculations were compared with the experimental results for the nBn detector with the absorber and contact layers in an InAs/InAsSb superlattice separated AlAsSb barrier. Detector structure was grown using MBE technique on a GaAs substrate. The k p model was used to determine the first electron band and the first heavy and light hole bands in T2SL, as well as to calculate the absorption coefficient. The paper presents the effect of the additional hole barrier on electrical and optical parameters of the nBn structure. According to the principle of the nBn detector operation, the electrons barrier is to prevent the current flow from the contact layer to the absorber, while the holes barrier should be low enough to ensure the flow of optically generated carriers. The barrier height in the valence band (VB) was adjusted by changing the electron affinity of a ternary AlAsSb material. Results of numerical calculations similar to the experimental data were obtained, assuming the presence of a high barrier in VB which, at the same time, lowered the detector current responsivity.

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Authors and Affiliations

Małgorzata Kopytko
Emilia Gomółka
Tetiana Manyk
Krystian Michalczewski
Łukasz Kubiszyn
Jarosław Rutkowski
Piotr Martyniuk

  1. Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 2. Kaliskiego St., 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Vigo System S.A., Poznańska 129/133, 05-850 Ożarów Mazowiecki, Poland
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Thermal-imaging systems respond to infrared radiation that is naturally emitted by objects. Various multispectral and hyperspectral devices are available for measuring radiation in discrete sub-bands and thus enable a detection of differences in a spectral emissivity or transmission. For example, such devices can be used to detect hazardous gases. However, their operation principle is based on the fact that radiation is considered a scalar property. Consequently, all the radiation vector properties, such as polarization, are neglected. Analysing radiation in terms of the polarization state and the spatial distribution of thereof across a scene can provide additional information regarding the imaged objects. Various methods can be used to extract polarimetric information from an observed scene. We briefly review architectures of polarimetric imagers used in different wavebands. First, the state-of-the-art polarimeters are presented, and, then, a classification of polarimetric-measurement devices is described in detail. Additionally, the data processing in Stokes polarimeters is given. Emphasis is laid on the methods for obtaining the Stokes parameters. Some predictions in terms of LWIR polarimeters are presented in the conclusion.
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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Bieszczad
Sławomir Gogler
Jacek Świderski

  1. Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 gen. S. Kaliskiego St., 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
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Adopting mode division multiplex (MDM) technology as the next frontier for optical fiber communication and on-chip optical interconnection systems is becoming very promising because of those remarkable experimental results based on MDM technology to enhance capacity of optical transmission and, hence, making MDM technology an attractive research field. Consequently, in recent years the large number of new optical devices used to control modes, for example, mode converters, mode filters, mode (de)multiplexers, and mode-selective switches, have been developed for MDM applications. This paper presents a review on the recent advances on mode converters, a key component usually used to convert a fundamental mode into a selected high-order mode, and vice versa, at the transmitting and receiving ends in the MDM transmission system. This review focuses on the mode converters based on planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology and various PLC-based mode converters applied to the above two systems and realized with different materials, structures, and technologies. The basic principles and performances of these mode converters are summarized.
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Authors and Affiliations

Areez K. Memon
Kai X. Chen

  1. School of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, P.R. China
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In this paper, a theoretical design of a novel passive optical line protection device for fiber to the home networks is presented and discussed. Such a device has been designed to overcome several issues of the conventional optical line protection which is based on a switching mechanism controlled electronically. The proposed design is suitable for multiplexed passive optical networks, especially, the dense wavelength division multiplexing technology. This unit is installed at both ends of the network and is composed of a 1×2 splitter to deliver the transmitted multiplexed signal to 2 optical paths and a 2×1 (99.9/0.1) coupler allowing an automatic control when a problem appears. Two optical line protection units exchange optical data through 2 dual fibers. In the case where the primary link suffers from a transmission problem, it automatically switches without any electronic control whatsoever to the backup link through a passive (99.9/0.1) coupler with an average total loss estimated to be of 3.2 dB.
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    Authors and Affiliations

    Imene Hacene
    Fethallah Karim

    1. Laboratory of Telecommunication (LTT), Universityof Tlemcen, BP 230 -13000 Chetouane, Tlemcen, Algeria
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    Rotational seismology is one of the fastest developing fields of science nowadays with strongly recognized significance. Capability of monitoring rotational ground motions represents a crucial aspect of improving civil safety and efficiency of seismological data gathering. The correct sensing network selection is very important for reliable data acquisition. This paper presents initial data obtained during the international research study which has involved more than 40 various rotational sensors collected in one place. The key novelty of this experiment was the possibility to compare data gathered by completely different rotational sensors during artificially generated ground vibrations. Authors collected data by four interferometric optical fiber sensors, Fiber-Optic System for Rotational Events & Phenomena Monitoring (FOSREM), which are mobile rotational seismographs with a wide measuring range from 10-7 rad/s up to even few rad/s, sensitive only to the rotational component of the ground movement. Presented experimental results show that FOSREMs are competitive in rotational events recording compared with the state-of-the-art rotational sensors but their operation still should be improved.
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    Authors and Affiliations

    Anna T. Kurzych
    Leszek R. Jaroszewicz
    Michał Dudek
    Bartosz Sakowicz
    Jerzy K. Kowalski

    1. Institute of Technical Physics, Military University of Technology., 2 gen. S. Kaliskiego St., Warsaw 00-908, Poland
    2. Dep. of Microelectronics and Computer Science, Lodz University of Technology, 221/223 Wólczańska St., Lodz 90-924, Poland
    3. Elproma Elektronika Ltd., 13 Szymanowskiego St., Łomianki 05-092, Poland

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