Applied sciences

Opto-Electronics Review


Opto-Electronics Review | 2024 | 32 | 3

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The dynamics of semiconductor lasers are modelled in the time domain using a pair of differential equations known as rate equations. The analysis, based on temporal solutions of these equations, yields practical results utilised in various applications. Alternatively, an analysis employing the phase space method, a well-established analytical tool in applied mathematics, provides a more comprehensive perspective on semiconductor laser dynamics. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed and intuitive introduction to phase space analysis in the context of semiconductor laser dynamics. The goal is to offer an easily comprehensible description of the mentioned method, placing emphasis on the graphical representation and physical interpretation of the results. The method effectiveness is shown through its application to selected practical problems. Furthermore, semiconductor laser dynamics can be treated as an illustrative example, showcasing the applicability of the method, which can be readily extended to other types of lasers or even more advanced dynamic systems.
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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Grześ
Maria Michalska
Jacek Świderski

  1. Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, ul. gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908, Warsaw, Poland
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The paper provides a detailed treatment of the expected range performance for the laser rangefinder (LRF) developed for the Polish ImAging SaTellites (PIAST) space mission, where the distance between satellites within a constellation has to be measured during orbital flight. The satellites are equipped with corner cube retroreflectors (CCR) to increase the efficiency of laser back-reflection. A theoretical signal-to-noise range-dependence model was developed to determine the maximum expected range of the measurements. This model included the tilt-angle-dependent properties of the CCR far-field diffraction patterns (FFDP) which were measured experimentally. In addition, the specific parameters of the receiving optoelectronic circuit used were considered. The obtained results show that in the case of the constructed PIAST LRF (peak laser pulse power of 100 W, laser beam divergence of 5 mrad, receiving optical aperture diameter of 2 in, CCR diameter of 2 in), depending on the CCR angular inclination, a maximum measurement distance of 15–40 km is expected.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jacek Wojtanowski
Marcin Jakubaszek
Marek Zygmunt
Bartosz Sędek
Konrad Wójcik

  1. Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, ul. gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
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The work focuses on vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) made of nitride materials that emit a wavelength of 445 nm. Two structures were examined: a laser with a tunnel junction and implantation (TJ VCSEL) and an ITO contact (ITO VCSEL). The analysis delves into capacitance phenomena influencing the modulation speed of these lasers. The results highlight differences in active currents between two structures, i.e., currents which contribute to the modulation of the laser emission. According to the authors’ simulations, the TJ VCSEL is more effective in modulating the number of carriers in the active region than the ITO VCSEL, assuming the same modulation amplitude of driving current.
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Authors and Affiliations

Patrycja Śpiewak
Michał Wasiak
Robert P. Sarzała

  1. Institute of Physics, Lodz University of Technology, ul. Wólczańska 217/221, 93-005 Lodz, Poland

Instructions for authors

Guide for Authors

OPTO-ELECTRONICS REVIEW is an open access journal. This involves the payment of an article publishing charge (APC) by the authors, their institution or funding body. We make the article freely available immediately upon publication on PAS Jornals platform (

As of July 1st, 2024, there are changes in the fees for open access publications in Opto-Electronics Review: 2000 PLN (500 EUR) - up to 8 pages of the journal format and mandatory over-length charges of 200 PLN (50 EUR) per page (see the above link with instructions for Authors for details)

Articles submitted by June 30th, 2024: existing fee: 1750 PLN (or 400 EUR)

Articles submitted from July 1st, 2024: new fee: 2000 PLN (or 500 EUR) - a flat fee per paper up to 8 pages of the journal format (each additional page will be charged an additional 200 PLN or 50 EUR).

Additional info

Opto-Electronics Review was established in 1992 for the publication of scientific papers concerning optoelectronics and photonics materials, system and signal processing. This journal covers the whole field of theory, experimental verification, techniques and instrumentation and brings together, within one journal, contributions from a wide range of disciplines. Papers covering novel topics extending the frontiers in optoelectronics and photonics are very encouraged. The main goal of this magazine is promotion of papers presented by European scientific teams, especially those submitted by important team from Central and Eastern Europe. However, contributions from other parts of the world are by no means excluded.

Articles are published in OPELRE in the following categories:

-invited reviews presenting the current state of the knowledge,

-specialized topics at the forefront of optoelectronics and photonics and their applications,

-refereed research contributions reporting on original scientific or technological achievements,

-conference papers printed in normal issues as invited or contributed papers.

Authors of review papers are encouraged to write articles of relevance to a wide readership including both those established in this field of research and non-specialists working in related areas. Papers considered as “letters” are not published in OPELRE.

Opto-Electronics Review is published quarterly as a journal of the Association of Polish Electrical Engineers (SEP) and Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS) in cooperation with the Military University of Technology and under the auspices of the Polish Optoelectronics Committee of SEP.

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The editors of the journal place particular emphasis on compliance with the following principles:

Ethical policy of Opto-Electronics Review

The ethical policy of Opto-Electronics Review follows the European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity and is also guided by the core practices and policies outlined by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Authors must be honest in presenting their results and conclusions of their research. Research misconduct is harmful for knowledge.

Research results

Fabrication, falsification, or selective reporting of data with the intent to mislead or deceive is unethical, as is the theft of data or research results from others. The results of research should be recorded and maintained to allow for analysis and review. Following publication, the data should be retained for a reasonable period and made available upon request. Exceptions may be appropriate in certain circumstances to preserve privacy, to assure patent protection, or for similar reasons.


All those who have made a significant contribution should be given chance to be cited as authors. Other individuals who have contributed to the work should be acknowledged. Articles should include a full list of the current institutional affiliations of all authors, both academic and corporate.

Competing interests

All authors, referees and editors must declare any conflicting or competing interests relating to a given article. Competing interests through their potential influence on behavior or content or perception may undermine the objectivity, integrity, or perceived value of publication.

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We are committed to prompt evaluation and publication of fully accepted papers in Opto-Electronics Review’s publications. To maintain a high-quality publication, all submissions undergo a rigorous review process.

Characteristics of the peer review process are as follows:

• Simultaneous submissions of the same manuscript to different journals will not be tolerated.

• Manuscripts with contents outside the scope will not be considered for review.

• Opto-Electronics Review is a single-blind review journal.

• Papers will be refereed by at least 2 experts as suggested by the editorial board.

• In addition, Editors will have the option of seeking additional reviews when needed. Authors will be informed when Editors decide further review is required.

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• All submitted manuscripts are treated as confidential documents. We expect reviewers to treat manuscripts as confidential material.

• Editors and reviewers involved in the review process should disclose conflicts of interest resulting from direct competitive, collaborative, or other relationships with any of the authors, and remove oneself from cases in which such conflicts preclude an objective evaluation. Privileged information or ideas that are obtained through peer review must not be used for competitive gain.

• A reviewer should be alert to potential ethical issues in the paper and should bring these to the attention of the editor, including any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which the reviewer has personal knowledge. Any statement, observation, derivation, or argument that had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation.

• Personal criticism is inappropriate.


Reproducing text from other papers without properly crediting the source (plagiarism) or producing many papers with almost the same content by the same authors (self-plagiarism) is not acceptable. Submitting the same results to more than one journal concurrently is unethical. Exceptions are the review articles. Authors may not present results obtained by others as if they were their own. Authors should acknowledge the work of others used in their research and cite publications that have influenced the direction and course of their study.

Plagiarism is not tolerated. All manuscripts submitted to Opto-Electronics Review will be checked for plagiarism (copying text or results from other sources) and self-plagiarism (duplicating substantial parts of authors’ own published work without giving the appropriate references) using the CrossCheck database (iThenticate plagiarism checker).

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Simultaneous submissions of the same manuscript to different journals will not be tolerated. The submitted article will be removed without consideration.

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All authors have an obligation to inform and cooperate with journal editors to provide prompt retractions or correction of errors in published works.

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• There is clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g., data fabrication or honest error - miscalculation or experimental error);

• The findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission or justification (i.e., cases of redundant publication);

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• A small portion of an otherwise reliable publication proves to be misleading (especially because of honest error);

• The author list is incorrect.

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The primary responsibility for handling research misconduct is in the hands of those who employ the researchers. If a possible misconduct is brought to our attention, we will seek advice from the referees and the Editorial Board. If there is the evidence, we will resolve the matter by appropriate corrections in the printed and online journal; by refusing to consider an author's future work and by contacting affected authors and editors of other journals.

Human and Animal Rights

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed.

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