Applied sciences

Opto-Electronics Review

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Opto-Electronics Review | 2024 | 32 | 1

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Abstract

Growing energy demands are expected to render existing energy resources insufficient. Solar energy faces challenges in terms of providing continuous and reliable power supply to consumers. However, it has become increasingly important to implement renewable energy (RE) and energy management (EM) systems to increase the supply of power, improve efficiency, and maintain the stability of energy systems. As such, this present study integrated energy storage (ES) devices; namely, batteries and direct current (DC) to DC converters; into energy systems that support battery operation and effectively manage power flow, especially during peak load demands. The proposed system also addresses low solar irradiation and sudden load change scenarios by enabling the battery to operate in a discharge state to supply power to the load. Conversely, when the demand matches or exceeds the available solar energy, the battery is charged using solar power. The proposed system highlights the significance of RE systems and EM strategies in meeting growing energy demands and ensuring a reliable supply of power during solar variability and fluctuating loads. A MATLAB® Simulink model was used to evaluate the integration of a 200 kW photovoltaic (PV) array with a 380 V grid and 150 kW battery. The loads, consisting of a 100 kW and a 150 kW unit, were parallel connected. The results indicated that boost and three-phase (3Ph) inverters can be used to successfully integrate PV systems to the power grid to supply alternating current (AC) power. The inclusion of a battery also addressed power shortages during periods of insufficient power generation and to store surplus power.
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Authors and Affiliations

Baqer Saleh Mahdi
1
Nasri Sulaiman
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohanad Abd Shehab
2
Siti Lailatul Mohd Hassan
3
Suhaidi Shafie
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hashim Hizam
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Malaysia
  2. Electrical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq
  3. School of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
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Abstract

A graphene/NPB structure with Re2O7 as an interfacial layer in the context of its potential use in the design of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is investigated. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study shows the formation of the Re2O7 phase on a monolayer graphene on quartz during thermal deposition in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). The ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) study shows an enhancement of the work function of the graphene heterostructure after deposition of the Re2O7 layer up to 5.4 eV. The hole injection barrier between the Re2O7/graphene heterostructure and the N-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N,N-diphenyl-(1,1-biphenyl)-4,4-diamine (NPB) layer was estimated to be 0.35 eV, which is very promising for a good OLED performance.
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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Krukowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Michał Piskorski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Maciej Rogala
1
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Dąbrowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Iaroslav Lutsyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Witold Kozłowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dorota A. Kowalczyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Patryk Krempiński
1
ORCID: ORCID
Maxime Le Ster
1
ORCID: ORCID
Aleksandra Nadolska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Klaudia Toczek
1
ORCID: ORCID
Przemysław Przybysz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Rafał Dunal
2
ORCID: ORCID
Wojciech Ryś
1
ORCID: ORCID
Shankhanil Sarkar
3
ORCID: ORCID
Beata Łuszczyńska
4
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł J. Kowalczyk
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Solid State Physics (member of National Photovoltaic Laboratory, Poland), Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, ul. Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź, Poland
  2. Department of Solid State Physics (member of National Photovoltaic Laboratory, Poland), Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, 149/153 Pomorska St., 90–236 Łódź, Poland
  3. Department of Physics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani-741235, Nadia, West Bengal, India
  4. Department of Molecular Physics (member of National Photovoltaic Laboratory, Poland), Lodz University of Technology, ul. Żeromskiego 116, 90-924 Łódź, Poland
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Abstract

Underwater wireless optical communication is the best alternative for many applications especially for high bandwidth data communication between underwater objects and vehicles. The implementation of coding scheme along with advanced modulation technique and equalisation methods is identified as a key research scope for enhancing the performance of the system. In this paper, the coded generalised frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) technology is employed to provide high-data rates and less out-of-band emission. The Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) and Reed-Solomon (RS) coding schemes along with equalisation techniques namely normalised least mean square (NLMS)-based decision feedback equalisers (DFE), minimum mean square error (MMSE) and zero forcing (ZF) are utilized to reduce inter symbol interference (ISI). The bit error rate (BER) performance is evaluated in the presence of pointing error (PE) and turbulence using Monte Carlo channel modelling simulations. The results showed that RS coding with NLMS-DFE outperforms other techniques and achieves a BER of roughly 10−5 with a signal-to-noise ratio levels below 20 dB. The simulation results demonstrate that RS code with 15 total symbols per code word and 3 data symbols, i.e., RS (15, 3) and BCH code with 31 total symbols in a code word and 6 data symbols, i.e., BCH (31, 6) provided the best error performance among other coding schemes employed. It is inferred that RS (15, 3) coded 2 × 2 multiple input multiple output systems with NLMS-DFE achieved a BER value of 1.1925 ×  10−5 at 11 dB which is 16 dB less than uncoded system. Thus, the coded GFDM improves overall BER performance and has the potential to provide higher reliability for internet of underwater things (IoUT) applications.
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Authors and Affiliations

R. Hema
1
Ananthi A.
Diana D. C.
1

  1. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Easwari Engineering College, 162 Bharathi Salai, Ramapuram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600089, India
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Abstract

The quantum efficiency of an InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattice (T2SL) high operating temperature (HOT) long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) photodetector may be significantly improved by integrating a two-dimensional subwavelength hole array in a metallic film (2DSHA) with the detector heterostructure. The role of the metallic grating is to couple incident radiation into surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes whose field overlaps the absorber region. Plasmon-enhanced infrared photodetectors have been recently demonstrated and are the subject of intensive research. Optical modelling of the three-dimensional detector structure with subwavelength metallic components is challenging, especially since its operation depends on evanescent wave coupling. Our modelling approach combines the 3D finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) and the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) with a proposed adaptive data-point selection for calculation time reduction. We demonstrate that the 2DSHA-based detector supports SPPs in the Sommerfeld-Zenneck regime and waveguide modes that both enhance absorption in the active layer.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Janaszek
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Piotr Wróbel
2
ORCID: ORCID
Maciej Dems
3
ORCID: ORCID
Omer Ceylan
4
ORCID: ORCID
Yasar Gurbuz
4
ORCID: ORCID
Łukasz Kubiszyn
5
ORCID: ORCID
Józef Piotrowski
6
ORCID: ORCID
Rafał Kotyński
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Janaszek, Andrzej :VIGO Photonics, Poznańska 129/133, 05-850 Ożarów Mazowiecki, Poland
  2. Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw, Poland
  3. Institute of Physics, Lodz University of Technology, Wólczańska 217/221, 93-005 Łódź, Poland
  4. Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul, Turkey
  5. Kubiszyn, Łukasz :VIGO Photonics, Poznańska 129/133, 05-850 Ożarów Mazowiecki, Poland
  6. Piotrowski, Józef :VIGO Photonics, Poznańska 129/133, 05-850 Ożarów Mazowiecki, Poland
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Abstract

This work reports on the investigation of homogeneity of the inside of indium micro-bumps/ columns placed on Ti/Pt/Au under bump metallisation. This is very important for connection resistivity, long-time durability, and subsequent hybridisation process (e.g., die-bonding). Gold reacts with indium to form intermetallic alloys with different chemo-physical parameters than pure indium. The geometrical and structural parameters of intermetallic alloys were analysed based on transmission electron microscope images. Distribution of elements in the investigated samples was determined using the transmission electron micro-scope with energy dispersive spectroscopy method. A thickness of intermetallic alloy was 1.02 μm and 1.67 μm in non-annealed (A) and annealed (B) indium columns, respectively. The layered and column-like interior structure of alloys was observed for both samples, respectively, with twice bigger grains in sample B. The graded chemical composition of Au-In intermetallic alloy was detected for the non-annealed In columns in contrast to the constant composition of 40% of Au and 60% of In for the annealed sample B. The atomic distribution has a minor impact on the In column mechanical stability. A yield above 99% of an In column with a 25 µm diameter and a 11 µm height is possible for a uniform columnar structure of intermetallic alloy with a thickness of 1.67 μm.
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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Kozłowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Agata Jasik
1
ORCID: ORCID
Adam Łaszcz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Krzysztof Czuba
1
ORCID: ORCID
Krzysztof Chmielewski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Krzysztof Zdunek
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1.  Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Microelectronics and Photonics, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, ul. Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The article presents the simulation results of a single-pixel infrared camera image reconstruction obtained by using a convolutional neural network (CNN). Simulations were carried out for infrared images with a resolution of 80 × 80 pixels, generated by a low-cost, low-resolution thermal imaging camera. The study compares the reconstruction results using the CNN and the ℓ1 reconstruction algorithm. The results obtained using the neural network confirm a better quality of the reconstructed images with the same compression rate expressed by the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity index measure (SSIM).
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Authors and Affiliations

Sebastian Urbaś
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bogusław Więcek
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Electronics, Lodz University of Technology, Al. Politechniki 6, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
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Abstract

In this study, an analysis of the optical performance of two types of distributed Bragg reflector structures based on GaAs and InP material systems was carried out. The structures were designed for maximum performance at 4 µm with their reflectivity achieving between 80 and 90% with eight pairs of constituent layers. To further enhance the performance of these structures, additional Au layers were added at the bottom of the structure with Ti pre-coating applied to improve the adhesivity of the Au to the semiconductor substrate. The optimal range of Ti layer thickness resulting in the improvement of the maximum reflectivity was determined to be in between 5 and 15 nm.
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Authors and Affiliations

Monika Mikulicz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mikołaj Badura
2
ORCID: ORCID
Michał Rygała
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tristan Smołka
1
ORCID: ORCID
Wojciech Macherzyński
2
ORCID: ORCID
Adriana Łozińska
2
ORCID: ORCID
Marcin Motyka
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Laboratory for Optical Spectroscopy of Nanostructures, Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, ul. Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
  2. Department of Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, Faculty of Electronics, Photonics and Microsystems, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, ul. Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wrocław, Poland
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Abstract

The integration of optical fibre communication with multiple input multiple output-non-orthogonal multiple access (MIMO-NOMA) waveforms in cognitive radio (CR) systems is examined in this study. The proposed system leverages the advantages of optical fibre, including high bandwidth and immunity to electromagnetic interference to facilitate the transmission and reception of MIMO-NOMA signals in a CR environment. Moreover, MIMO-NOMA signal was detected and analysed by the hybrid-discrete cosine transform-Welch (H-DCT-W) method. Based on the modes results, a detection probability greater than 0.96%, a false alarm probability equal to 0.06, and a global system error probability equal to 0.09% were obtained with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) less than 0 dB, while maintaining a simple level of complexity. The results obtained in this paper indicate the potential of the optical fibre-based MIMO-NOMA system based on H-DCT-W technology in CR networks. Therefore, its suitability for practical CR applications is demonstrated by the improvements obtained in false alarms, detection probability, and error rates at low levels of SNR. This study contributes to the development of efficient and reliable wireless communication systems by linking cooperation and synergy concerning MIMO-NOMA, optical fibres, as well as the proposed detection technique (H-DCT-W).
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Authors and Affiliations

Zeyad T. Yaseen
1
Waleed Algriree
2

  1. Department of Medical Device Technology Engineering, Al Mustaqbal University, Babylon, Iraq
  2. Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
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Abstract

Online saree shopping has become a popular way for adolescents to shop for fashion. Purchasing from e-commerce is a huge time-saver in this situation. Female apparel has many difficult-to-describe qualities, such as texture, form, colour, print, and length. Research involving online shopping often involves studying consumer behaviour and preferences. Fashion image analysis for product search still faces difficulties in detecting textures based on query images. To solve the above problem, a novel deep learning-based SareeNet is presented to quickly classify the tactile sensation of a saree according to the user’s query. The proposed work consists of three phases: i) saree image pre-processing phase, ii) patch generation phase, and iii) texture detection and optimization for efficient classification. The input image is first denoised using a contrast stretching adaptive bilateral (CSAB) filter. The deep learning-based mask region-based convolutional neural network (Mask R-CNN) divides the region of interest into saree patches. A deep learning-based improved EfficientNet-B3 has been introduced which includes an optimized squeeze and excitation block to categorise 25 textures of saree images. The Aquila optimizer is applied within the squeeze and excitation block of the improved EfficientNet to normalise the parameters for improving the accuracy in saree texture classification. The experimental results show that SareeNet is effective in categorising texture in saree images with 98.1% accuracy. From the experimental results, the proposed improved EfficientNet-B3 improves overall accuracy by 2.54%, 0.17%, 2.06%, 1.78%, and 0.63%, for MobileNet, DenseNet201, ResNet152, and InspectionV3, respectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krishnan Ashok
1
Dharmaraj Karthika Priya
2
Appathurai Ahilan
3
Palanisamy Jayapriya
4

  1. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Coimbatore Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, India
  2. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Tamilnadu, India
  3. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, PSN College of Engineering and Technology, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India
  4. Centre for Future Networks and Digital Twin, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sri Eshwar Engineering College, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India
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Abstract

A method for defects extraction for a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) multilayer low-bandgap heterostructure is presented. The N+/T/p/T/P+/n+ epitaxial layer was deposited on a GaAs substrate by a metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The absorber was optimized for a cut-off wavelength of λc = 6 μm at 230 K. Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were conducted for the isolated junctions of the N+/T/p/T/P+/n+ heterostructure. Three localised point defects were extracted within the p-type active layer. Two of them were identified as electron traps and one as a hole trap, respectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kinga Majkowycz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Małgorzata Kopytko
1
ORCID: ORCID
Krzysztof Murawski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Piotr Martyniuk
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, ul. gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

This article presents an experimental investigation of polarization pulling based on stimulated Raman scattering induced by a continuous, fully polarized pump wave in an optical fibre. By means of probe wave states of polarization aggregation, degree of polarization and gain analysis, an assessment of all-optical polarization control, repolarization and amplification in a standard single mode fibre in depleted pump regime is presented. Polarization pulling is proved to be dependent on fibre length, pump power, and pump state of polarization, with respect to pump depletion effect, acting oppositely to the polarization pulling effect. Authors evaluate results aiming to obtain a configuration of stimulated Raman scattering parameters, which allows for the most effective polarization pulling, with respect to statistical stability of the process measured by standard deviation of polarization degree and polarization-dependent gain of the probe wave. The highest polarization attraction efficiency was obtained for 15 km, 0.97 W and the horizontal polarization state of the pump wave.
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Authors and Affiliations

Robert K. Cybulski
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Krzysztof Perlicki
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Dawis IT Sp. z o.o., ul. Staszica 1, 05-800 Pruszków, Poland
  2. Institute of Telecommunications, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The paper presents a simple method of measuring the luminous flux value dedicated to LED light sources. This method uses information about a spatial radiation pattern of the lighting source under test and the results of illuminance measurements at the axis of this source. The method is described and the results of the measurements obtained using this method and the classical method are compared and discussed. Tests have been carried out for LED modules of different geometries. The measurement error of the considered method is analysed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Górecki
1
ORCID: ORCID
Aleksandra Kalinowska
2
Przemysław Ptak
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Marine Electronics, Gdynia Maritime University, ul. Morska 81-87, 81-225 Gdynia, Poland
  2. Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Gdynia Maritime University, ul. Morska 81-87, 81-225 Gdynia, Poland

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OPTO-ELECTRONICS REVIEW is an open access journal. This involves the payment of an article publishing charge (APC) by the authors, their institution or funding body. We make the article freely available immediately upon publication on PAS Jornals platform (https://journals.pan.pl/opelre)

Article publishing charge: the flat fee of 400 EUR (in PLN 1 750) per paper (see the above link with instructions for Authors for details)

Additional info

Opto-Electronics Review was established in 1992 for the publication of scientific papers concerning optoelectronics and photonics materials, system and signal processing. This journal covers the whole field of theory, experimental verification, techniques and instrumentation and brings together, within one journal, contributions from a wide range of disciplines. Papers covering novel topics extending the frontiers in optoelectronics and photonics are very encouraged. The main goal of this magazine is promotion of papers presented by European scientific teams, especially those submitted by important team from Central and Eastern Europe. However, contributions from other parts of the world are by no means excluded.

Articles are published in OPELRE in the following categories:

-invited reviews presenting the current state of the knowledge,

-specialized topics at the forefront of optoelectronics and photonics and their applications,

-refereed research contributions reporting on original scientific or technological achievements,

-conference papers printed in normal issues as invited or contributed papers.

Authors of review papers are encouraged to write articles of relevance to a wide readership including both those established in this field of research and non-specialists working in related areas. Papers considered as “letters” are not published in OPELRE.

Opto-Electronics Review is published quarterly as a journal of the Association of Polish Electrical Engineers (SEP) and Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS) in cooperation with the Military University of Technology and under the auspices of the Polish Optoelectronics Committee of SEP.

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Ethical policy of Opto-Electronics Review

The ethical policy of Opto-Electronics Review follows the European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity and is also guided by the core practices and policies outlined by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Authors must be honest in presenting their results and conclusions of their research. Research misconduct is harmful for knowledge.

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We are committed to prompt evaluation and publication of fully accepted papers in Opto-Electronics Review’s publications. To maintain a high-quality publication, all submissions undergo a rigorous review process.

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• Simultaneous submissions of the same manuscript to different journals will not be tolerated.

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• Opto-Electronics Review is a single-blind review journal.

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• A reviewer should be alert to potential ethical issues in the paper and should bring these to the attention of the editor, including any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which the reviewer has personal knowledge. Any statement, observation, derivation, or argument that had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation.

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