Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research

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Polish Polar Research | 2012 | No 2 |

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Abstract

Hansbreen, a medium size tidewater glacier in Southern Spitsbergen (Svalbard) is one of the most intensively studied glaciers in the Arctic. This work presents new digital elevation models of its surface and basal topography based on data collected during GPS/GPR campaigns conducted in the spring seasons of 2005 and 2008, as well as on other recent topographic/bathymetric sources. The mean thickness of the glacier is calculated as 171 m and its volume is estimated to be 9.6 (±0.1) km 3 . The main feature of the bedrock morphology is a vast depression that is overdeepened below sea level and extends as far as 11 km upstream from the glacier front. This depression is divided into four individual basins by distinct sills that are related to the main geological/tectonic features of the area. The bedrock morphology affects considerably the glacier’s surface topography. The influence of bedrock and surface relief on the subglacial drainage system geometry is discussed. Vast depressions on the glacier surface favor concentration of meltwater and development of moulin systems.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mariusz Grabiec
Tomasz Budzik
Jacek A. Jania
Dariusz Puczko
Leszek Kolondra
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Abstract

The global zoogeographic distribution of the most widespread peracarid species occurring in three or more ocean basins below 2000 m is analysed. Basing on the published data we investigated 45 peracarid species, which have a most widespread distribution and most likely are cosmopolitan. Thirty−three species have a wide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. Most species occur in the North Atlantic, however, 16 of these species occur also in the North Pacific, a more limited number of species occurs in the South Atlantic or South Pacific The Southern Ocean displays some special zoogeographic features and 22 widespread species occur there below 2000 m, including highly eurybathic ones. In total, 11 of the analysed species occur in all oceans. Eucopia australis (Lophogastrida), Munneurycope murrayi (Isopoda) and Eurythenes gryllus (Amphipoda) are the species with the widest distributions. Other peracarids occurring in all oceans are: the isopods Paramunnopsis oceanica and Eurycope sarsi , the mysid Caesaromysis hispida the lophogastrid Eucopia unguiculata, the amphipod Mesopleustes abyssorum and the tanaids Exspina typica, Paranarthura insignis and Pseudotanais nordenskioldi . No cumacean species has been reported with an ocean−wide distribution but Campylaspis glabra occurs in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. Among plenty of rare species in each order there are only few species with wide distribution records. There is evidence from molecular genetic studies that some of the widespread peracarids represent several cryptic species, however, some, e.g. Eucopia australis , seem to be truly cosmopolitan species. Geography of sampling is biasing our view of biogeography. The history and quality of taxonomic work as well as the reliability of geographic records (quality control of large databases) limits our investigations of widespread or cosmopolitan species as much as the limited knowledge of variation within most species causes difficulties in defining morpho−species with certainty.
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Authors and Affiliations

Angelika Brandt
Magdalena Błażewicz-Paszkowycz
Roger N. Bamber
Ute Mühlenhardt-Siegel
Marina V. Malyutina
Stefanie Kaiser
Claude De Broyer
Charlotte Havermans
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Abstract

A new thambematid species, Thambema thunderstruckae sp. n., is described from King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic. Specimens of the new species were collected during two Polish Antarctic Expeditions in 1985 and 2007. It is the first record of this family from the Southern Hemisphere. The new species most closely resembles Thambema golanachum Harrison, 1987 and T. fiatum Harrison, 1987 but can be distinguished from both species by the shape of male pleopod 1, the number of claws on pereopods 2–7 and the setation of pereopod 1 and 2 carpus, respectively. A key to all known genera and species in the family Thambematidae is also provided.
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Authors and Affiliations

Karol Zemko
Stefanie Kaiser
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Abstract

Seventy−six species of Polychaeta were found in 19 quantitative samples collected in the deep sublittoral (200–500 m) of Admiralty Bay (South Shetlands). Three assemblages were distinguished by similarity analysis (clustering, nMDS). The soft bottom in depths from 200 to 300m was strongly dominated by Maldane sarsi antarctica and had very low species richness and diversity. The second assemblage was distinguished in the areas of the sea floor in the same depth range but with aggregations of Ascidiacea and Bryozoa. It was again characterized by high abundance of Maldane sarsi antarctica , but showed significantly higher species richness and diversity. Diversity of polychaete feeding guilds was also high in these areas. This pattern was probably associated with an increased habitat complexity due to the presence of dense aggregations of large suspension feeders. High species richness and diversity was also noted in the third assemblage, associated with the deepest sublittoral (400–500 m) of Admiralty Bay. This is the area characterized by very stable environmental conditions, where the assemblage was dominated by Tharyx cincinnatus , Sternaspis sp., Maldane sarsi antarctica , and Asychis amphiglypta .
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Pabis
Jacek Siciński
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Abstract

Candona rectangulata is an ostracod species common in cold (<15 ° C ) shallow freshwater Arctic water bodies. This species is useful in palaeolimnological studies because only few known autecological data can be applied in reconstructions of palaeoclimate. Particular attention was paid to the temperature, which is the basic factor determining the geo− graphic range of a species. In this study a wide tolerance of C. rectangulata to the temperature was demonstrated for the first time. Its high tolerance to the temperature changes seems to be based on induction of set of proteins belonging to the family of heat shock proteins. Using PAGE−SDS electrophoresis variation in the protein profile of non−model organism undergoing stress in the field (South Spitsbergen, near Stanisław Siedlecki Polish Polar Station) and in laboratory cultures was presented. These results could explain the eurythermic range of C. rectangulata and its good adaptation to the environmental conditions which normally do not exist in Arctic freshwater ponds.
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Authors and Affiliations

Barbara Wojtasik
Dorota Kuczyńska-Wiśnik

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