Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research

Content

Polish Polar Research | 1991 | vol. 12 | No 2 |

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Abstract

Quaternary sediments in the southwestern Nordenskiöld Land are described with particular emphasis put on distribution of erratics against their basset matrices. Results confirm previous suppositions on directions of past glacial advances from east westwards. The latter separated by sea submergences, caused translocations of the rock material. This process was most intensive in upstreams of large mountain valleys.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Musiał
Jacek Drecki
Bogdan Horodyski
Krzysztof Kossobudzki
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Abstract

We propose contents of topographic maps for polar areas to be supplemented with such landforms that are easily identified during the analysis of air or terrestial photographs. Such landforms include rock outliers (monadnocks), glacial boundaries, a beach and thick mantles of tundra vegetation. All these landforms create together with fluvial and lake patterns a system of elements that enable location of users and therefore make preparation of other (e.g. geological, geomorphological or glaciological) maps possible.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jan Dzierżek
Leszek Lindner
Leszek Marks
Jerzy Nitychoruk
Ryszard Szczęsny
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Abstract

Basing of fieldworks geomorphologic and geologic setting of 14 raised marine beaches in northern Hornsund Region was presented. Their age is approximated by radiocarbon and thermoluminescence datings of sediments. The latter indicated that the four highest but mostly questionable marine beaches (220—230,200—205,180—190 and 100—120 m a.s.l.) should be referred to the Wedel Jarlsberg Land (Saalian) Glaciation. The four lower beaches (80—95, 70—75, 50—60 and 40—46 m a.s.1.) are connected with the Bogstranda (Eemian) Interglacial and the pre-maximum part of the Sorkapp Land (Vistulian) Glaciation. The post-maximum part of this glaciation, including Lisbetdalen Stage (50—40 ka) and Slaklidalen Stage (30—20 ka), was the time when the three still lower marine beaches (32—35, 22—25,16—18 m a.s.l.) were formed. Three lowermost marine beaches (8—12,4.5—6,2 m a.s.l.) are of the Holocene age.

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Authors and Affiliations

Leszek Lindner
Leszek Marks
Waldemar Roszczynko
Julia Semil
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Abstract

Metal contents in the tundra soils (Gelic Regosols, Gelic Gleysols, Gelic Cambisols) of the maritime lowland of Kaffiöyra, in the western Spitsbergen seashore are presented in this publication. The average heave metal contents in samples collected from the depth layer 0—130 cm are follows: Fe 2.9%, Mn 392 ppm, Zn 75 ppm, Cu 23.4 ppm, Ni 24.1 ppm, Co 7.4 ppm, Pb 12.5 ppm, Cd 0.24 ppm. The surface soil layer 0 to 25 cm is poorer in Ca and Mg than the underlying layer 25 to 130 cm. The heave metal contents like Fe, Mn, Ni and Co, are also somewhat lower in the upper layer. The enrichment indices of Pb and Cd are equal in the surface soil layer 1.16 and 1.23 respectively. Correlation coefficients between each studied element and organic carbon, and, on the other hand, soil separates < 20 μm and < 2 μm are very low.

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Authors and Affiliations

Witold Plichta
Irena Kuczyńska
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Abstract

Distribution of the following elements: Na, K, Ca and Mg, and heavy metals: Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb and Cd was analysed in the Gelic Cambisols profile from Kaffiöyra, Spitsbergen. The leaching of Ca, Fe, Mn, Co and Cu, and in a less degree Mg and Ni downward the profiles occurs in the studied soil due to pedogenic processes. The surface soil horizon is strongly enriched in Na and K of marine origin and Pb and Cd from anthropogenic pollution of the distant atmospheric transports.

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Authors and Affiliations

Witold Plichta
Irena Kuczyńska
Andrzej Sapek
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Abstract

During summer seasons of 1982 and 198S the authors collected observations on rate of soil thawing under and around shallow tundra lakes. Two lakes were studied: A on the terrace 10 m a.s.1. in northern Kafliöyra whereas B at about 40 m a.sJ. in southern margin of Sarsdyra. The lakes indicated considerable variation of water lavels (10—20 m) caused by limited water bodies (to 40—80%) at the end of the observation period. Soil thawing was studied in sections across lake basins and to 20 m around them. A thawing rate was found greater under the lakes than in their surroundings and it was noted to be in the same time the quicker the larger was the lake. Studies of the lake B proved also that increase in the reservoir depth made a greater rate and depth of summer thawing. This process varied also considerably in time. At the beginning of a polar summer the dry soil of elevated tundra thaws sooner while permafrost under water reservoirs gets conserved. Later on (in August) a quick aggradation of active layer in noted under the lake. A heat accumulated in water bodies prolongs the soil thawing as well.

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Authors and Affiliations

Czesław Pietrucień
Rajmund Skowron
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Abstract

Heavy minerals in sandur deposits from the forefield of the Renard Glacier were investigated. They are concentrated only in fractions below 0.1 mm in diameter. Composition and preservation of heavy minerals indicate very high dynamic in the sedimentary environment. Most resistant minerals as zircon and tourmaline predominate and are strongly crumbled. They probably may serve as mineral indicators of sandur deposits. If distinguished regularities are confirmed in forefield in other Spitsbergen sandurs, then contemporary and Pleistocene sandur deposits could be compared. No mineralogie differentiation of intra- and extramorainal sandurs was noted.

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Authors and Affiliations

Roman Chlebowski
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Abstract

Mean annual variation of snow depth at the Hornsund Station has been determined. The snow cover usually appears in late September and remains till the beginning of July the next year. The snow depth keeps growing till the first half of March and from then on, until the third dekad of May it does not change. Towards the end of May fast decrease of snow cover occurs mainly due to subsidence by intensive insolation. If compared to the Arctic Basin the snow cover appears in Hornsund three dekads later and disappears about two dekads sooner.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mirosław Miętus
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Abstract

Thin coal seams found in the Lions Cove Formation, Polonia Glacier Group (Middle Eocene, upper part) at King George Bay, King George Island (South Shetland Islands, West Antarctica), represent lustrous (vitrine) brown-coal metaphase. The coal from the lower seam represents carbonized wood, probably angiosperm, that from the upper ones originated due to accumulation of branches or larger wood fragments and leaf remains. These coals are slightly older than metaxylite brown coal previously described from Admiralty Bay on King George Island, and dated at Eocene-Oligocene boundary. Both coal occurrences are evidences for a warm climate which prevailed in the Antarctic Peninsula sector during the Arctowski Interglacial (ca 50—32 Ma).

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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Birkenmajer
Jerzy K. Frankiewicz
Marian Wagner
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Abstract

The species of the brachiopod genus Terebratella d'Orbigny, which does not correspond to any one reported hitherto from the upper Eocene-? lower Oligocene La Meseta Formation of Seymour Island, West Antarctica but showing a strong affinity to the Recent T. inconspicua (Sowerby), is described.

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Authors and Affiliations

Maria Aleksandra Bitner

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