Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research

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Polish Polar Research | Early Access |

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Abstract

Atmospheric gases and chemical impurities can be stored and chemically transformed in the tropospheric ice. Impurities are rejected during freezing of the ice to the grain boundaries, free ice surfaces or inclusions. Surface snow and tropospheric ice, however, may be exposed to high temperatures and, eventually, the gases and chemical impurities can be released into the environment. It is important to study the surface structure and transport mechanisms at temperatures near the melting point because the location of impurities and their interactions with water molecules in the ice are not yet sufficiently explained. In this work, the evolution of a scratch on the bicrystalline ice surface was studied at −5 ℃. The surface transport mechanisms near the melting point were studied and, as a consequence, the surface structure could be determined. An ice sample was kept immersed in ultra-pure silicone oil to prevent evaporation and, thus, isolate the effect of surface diffusion. The ice sample was made with water with chemical conditions similar to the water of polar ice sheets. Photographs of the scratch were taken periodically, for approximately 50 hours, using a photographic camera coupled to an optical microscope. From these images, the evolution of the width of the scratch was studied and the surface diffusion was the dominant transport mechanism in the experiment. Finally, the ice surface self-diffusion coefficient at −5 ℃ was determined and it was very similar to the super-cooled water diffusion coefficient. A liquid-like behavior of ice surfaces near the melting point was found and it could have a strong influence on the reaction rates with atmospheric gases.
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Authors and Affiliations

Guillermo Aguirre Varela
Carlos L. Di Prinzio
Damián Stoler
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Abstract

Seasonal variations of the isotopic and chemical compositions of snowpits can provide useful tools for dating the age of the snowpit and examining the sources of aerosol. Based on the seasonal layers with D and 18O maxima and minima, it was determined that the snowpit, conducted in the vicinity of the Jang Bogo Station in Antarctica, contained snow deposited over a three-year period (2008–2010). Distinct seasonal variations of stable water isotopes were observed, with a slope of 8.2 from the linear isotopic relationship between oxygen and hydrogen, which indicates that the snow accumulated during three years without a significant post-depositional process. The positive correlations (r > 0.85) between Na+ and other ions in the winter period and the positive relationship the concentrations of the methanesulphonic acid (MSA) and non-sea salt sulfate (nssSO42–) in the warm period (r = 0.6, spring to summer) indicate the significant contributions of an oceanic source to the snowpit. Based on principal component analysis, the isotopic and chemical variables were classified into species representing input of sea-salt aerosol and suggesting potential seasonal markers. This study will support further investigations using ice cores in this region.
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Authors and Affiliations

Soon Do Hur
1
Jiwoong Chung
1
Yalalt Namgerel
1 2
Jeonghoon Lee
2

  1. Division of Glacial Environmental Research, Korea Polar Research Institute, 26, Songdomirae-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 21990, Korea
  2. Department of Science Education, Ewha Womans University, 52, Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750, Korea
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Abstract

In this article we investigate diatom assemblages in surface sediments of the subarctic Lake Imandra. We examine taxonomic composition and ecological structure and describe spatial variations of diatoms over the lake area. The diatom flora described here are characterized by abundance of planktonic centric species. The habitats of diatoms in the different stretches of Lake Imandra reflect local environmental conditions and are determined by the type and intensity of the anthropogenic impact. Stephanodiscus minutulus, S. alpinus, Aulacoseira islandica are the most abundant species in the area of the lake affected by industrial effluents and eutrophication, while Pantocsekiella comensis is most typical in the background sites of the lake. Diatoms’ taxonomic diversity is high in shallow bays where aquatic vegetation is common. Abundance of diatoms in areas affected by anthropogenic eutrophication reflects the high intensity of plankton primary production. Differences in the ecological structure of the diatom assemblages in different parts of Lake Imandra are caused by significant hydrochemical heterogeneity of the water quality.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sofia Vokueva
1
Dmitrii Denisov
1

  1. Institute of the North Industrial Ecology Problems, Federal Research Center “Kola Science Center of RAS”, 8a Akademgorodok Street, 184209, Apatity, Murmansk region, Russia
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Abstract

In this work we summarize the current knowledge on the spatial distribution, host specificity and genetic diversity of Onchobothrium antarcticum, an endemic Antarctic cestode. We recorded it in seven fish species, elasmobranchs Amblyraja georgiana, Bathyraja eatonii, and B. maccaini and teleosts Antimora rostrata, Chionobathyscus dewitti, Dissostichus mawsoni, and Muraenolepis marmorata, caught in the Ross Sea, the D’Urville Sea, the Mawson Sea, and the Weddell Sea. The infection of A. rostrata from the part of its distribution to the south of the Falkland Islands is reported for the first time. We obtained partial 28S rDNA and cox1 sequences of plerocercoids and adults of O. antarcticum and analyzed them together with a few previously published sequences. Based on the results of the phylogenetic analysis, we cannot rule out that O. antarcticum is in fact a complex of cryptic species.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ilya I. Gordeev
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Tatyana A. Polyakova
3
ORCID: ORCID
Alexander A. Volkov
4
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1/12, 119234, Moscow, Russia
  2. Department of Pacific Salmons, Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography, V. Krasnoselskaya Str. 17, 107140, Moscow, Russia
  3. Moscow representative office of A.O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS, Leninsky Pr. 38/3, 119991, Moscow, Russia
  4. Department of Molecular Genetics, Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography, V. Krasnoselskaya Str. 17, 107140, Moscow, Russia
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Abstract

The coexistence of two congeneric amphipods, boreal Gammarus oceanicus, and arctic G. setosus, was studied during the summer seasons of 2017-2019 in the region of Isfjorden, Forlandsundet, and Prins Karl Forland island in the west-central part of the Svalbard archipelago (Arctic). Across the study area species distribution often overlapped, but the domination patterns mirrored environmental conditions preferred by each species. Both species, however, were able to survive in suboptimal conditions. On a small spatial scale (in one sample) the species were separated, which may suggest an antagonistic relationship between them. The ongoing changes in the environment of Svalbard will likely affect these two species differently. The increasing intrusion of Atlantic waters will probably favor the further expansion of G. oceanicus along the Svalbard coasts. This will be due to the gradual advance of the existing population, as an influx of individuals from the Nordic seas seems unlikely. G. setosus will remain the dominant species in cold-water areas such as the inner fjords and the northeastern coast of Svalbard and may find new suitable habitats in lagoons or estuaries fed by melting glaciers. Despite predicted changes in the distribution range of both species, their future coexistence should still be possible due to the wide range of environmental tolerance and the heterogeneity of the Svalbard coastal habitats.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jan Marcin Węsławski
1
Joanna Legeżyńska
1
Lech Kotwicki
1
Mikołaj Mazurkiewicz
1
Sergej Olenin
2

  1. Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland
  2. Marine Research Institute, Klaipėda University, Universiteto al. 17, 92294, Klaipėda, Lithuania
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Abstract

European whitefish ( Coregonus lavaretus) is a highly polymorphic species, but the wider scale diversity and distribution of sympatric morphs in subarctic lakes of northwestern Russia has not been recently studied and analyzed. The aim of the present study was to investigate diversity and distribution of whitefish morphs in different sized lakes and watercourses of Murmansk region. Our study of the water bodies in four major river basins of Murmansk region revealed the presence of two whitefish morphs: sparsely rakered (further sr) and medium rakered ( mr). The mr morph is less common and observed only alongside the sr whitefish. In general, in sr whitefish the number of gill rakers ranges between 15 and 31, and in mr whitefish between 27 and 44. Among whitefishes with 27 to 31 gill rakers, both sr and mr morphs were observed and distinguishable by the shape of the rakers. In the studied sr whitefish populations, relatively long and short rakered whitefish morphs were found. In Lake Kuetsyarvi (Pasvik River basin), the sr and mr whitefish formed additional slow- and fastgrowing ecological morphs. The four whitefish morphs in Lake Kuetsyarvi specialize to different ecological niches correlating with morphological and behavioral differences. The observed diversity and distribution of whitefish in the Murmansk region requires genetic studies of the population to assess the origins of divergence.
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Authors and Affiliations

Elena Mikhailovna Zubova
1
Nikolay Alexandrovich Kashulin
1
Petr Mikhailovich Terentjev
1
Alexey Valerievich Melekhin
2

  1. Aquatic Ecosystems Laboratory at the Institute of Industrial Ecology of the North, Kola Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok 14a, 184209 Apatity, Murmansk region, Russia
  2. Flora and Vegetation Laboratory at the Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden-Institute, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok 18a, 184209 Apatity, Murmansk region, Russia
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Abstract

Antarctica features one of the most ancient, largest glacier reserves and the most pristine environment left on the earth. However, in last few decade disturbances due to industrialization and release of greenhouse gases have led to serious consequences such as melting of polar ice sheets, changing atmospheric chemistry and ozone depletion. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing to understand the impact of subtle changes in environmental parameters on bacterial communities. We observed dominance of Cyanobacteria (41.93%) followed by Bacteroidetes (14.8%), Acidobacteria (13.35%), Proteobacteria (9.67%), Actinobacteria (7.79%), Firmicutes (3.46%) among all the samples collected every alternate day for 20 days. Additionally, metagenomic imputations revealed higher abundance of gene families associated with DNA repair and carotenoid biosynthesis enabling bacterial communities to resist and function under the high UV radiations. We further observed bacterial communities are dependent on the single carbon metabolism as a strategy for nutrient uptake in such nutrient deprived conditions.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kunal Jani
1
Anoop Mahajan
2
Swapnil Kajale
1
Aditee Ashar
1
Avinash Sharma
1

  1. National Centre for Cell Science, Pune, India
  2. Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Dr. Homi Bhabha road, Pune 411008, India
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Abstract

In the Central Caucasus region, the intense process of deglaciation is identified as caused by cryoconite formation and accumulation. The fine earth materials were collected on the surfaces of Skhelda and Garabashi glaciers as well as from zonal soils of Baksan Gorge and were studied in terms of chemical, particle-size, and micromorphological features. Supraglacial sediments are located at the glacial drift area of material and, thus, due to transfer of these sediments to the foothill area, their fine earth material can affect micromorphological and chemical characteristics of adjacent zonal soils. Thin sections of mineral and organo-mineral micromonoliths were analyzed by classic micromorphological methods. Data obtained showed that the weathering rates of cryoconite and soil minerals are different. The cryoconite material on the debris-covered Skhelda Glacier originated from local massive crystalline rocks and moraines, while for Garabashi Glacier the volcanic origin of cryoconite is more typical. Soils of Baksan Gorge are characterized by more developed microfabric and porous media, but their mineralogical composition is essentially inherited from sediments of glacial and periglacial soils. These new data could be useful for understanding the process of evolution of the mineral matrix of cryoconite to the soil matrix formed at the foot of the mountain.
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Authors and Affiliations

Evgeny Abakumov
Rustam Tembotov
Ivan Kushnov
Vyacheslav Polyakov
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Abstract

This paper contributes to the studies on the lichen diversity of Barentsøya. It covers 211 species, of which four ( Buellia schaereri, Myriolecis zosterae var. palanderi, Rhizocarpon furfurosum, R. leptolepis) are reported for the first time for the Svalbard archipelago. Additionally, 84 of the species are reported for the first time for Barensøya. Our study includes 2 subspecies as well, both new for Barentsøya. Thirty-six species (16.8% among the identified species) are rare in Svalbard, whereas more than two thirds (70.1% from identified in the Barensøya) are relatively widespread species in Svalbard and the Arctic.
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Authors and Affiliations

Liudmila Konoreva
1
Sergey Chesnokov
2

  1. Avrorin Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden-Institute of Kola Scientific Centre of RAS, 184250 Kirovsk, Murmansk Region, Russia
  2. Komarov Botanical Institute RAS, Professor Popov St. 2, 197376 St. Petersburg, Russia
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Abstract

Duringthe evolution organisms are subjected to the continuous impact of environmental factors. In recent years an increasing number of studies have focused on the physicochemical limits of lifeon Earthsuch as temperature, pressure, drought, salt content, pH, heavy metals, etc. Extreme environmental conditions disrupt the most important interactions that support the function and structure of biomolecules.Forthis reason,organisms inhabiting extreme habitats have recently become of particularlygreat interest. Although filamentous fungi are an important partof the polar ecosystem, information about their distribution and diversity, as well as their adaptation mechanisms, is insufficient. In the present study,the fungal strain Penicillium griseofulvum isolated from an Antarctic soil sample was used as a study model. The fungal cellular response against short term exposure to low temperature was observed. Our results clearly showed that short-term low temperature exposure caused oxidative stress in fungal cells and resulted in enhanced level of oxidative damaged proteins, accumulation of reserve carbohydrates and increased activity of the antioxidant enzyme defence. Ultrastructural changes in cell morphology wereanalysed. Different pattern of cell pathology provoked by the application of two stress temperatures was detected. Overall, this study aimed to observe the survival strategy of filamentous fungi in extremely cold habitats, and to acquire new knowledge about the relationship between low temperature and oxidative stress.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ekaterina Ts. Krumova
1
Ekaterina K. Koeva
1
Stoyanka R. Stoitsova
1
Tsvetelina S. Paunova-Krasteva
1
Galina D. Stoyancheva
1
Maria B. Angelova
1

  1. The Stephan Angeloff Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 26, Acad. G. Bonchev str., 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

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