Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research


Polish Polar Research | 2022 | vol. 43 | No 1

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In the Central Caucasus region, the intense process of deglaciation is identified as caused by cryoconite formation and accumulation. The fine earth materials were collected on the surfaces of Skhelda and Garabashi glaciers as well as from zonal soils of Baksan Gorge and were studied in terms of chemical, particle-size, and micromorpholo-gical features. Supraglacial sediments are located at the glacial drift area of material and, thus, due to transfer of these sediments to the foothill area, their fine earth material can affect micromorphological and chemical characteristics of adjacent zonal soils. Thin sections of mineral and organo-mineral micromonoliths were analyzed by classic micromorphological methods. Data obtained showed that the weathering rates of cryoconite and soil minerals are different. The cryoconite material on the debris-covered Skhelda Glacier originated from local massive crystalline rocks and moraines, while for Garabashi Glacier the volcanic origin of cryoconite is more typical. Soils of Baksan Gorge are characterized by more developed microfabric and porous media, but their mineralogical composition is essentially inherited from sediments of glacial and periglacial soils. These new data could be useful for understanding the process of evolution of the mineral matrix of cryoconite to the soil matrix formed at the foot of the mountain.
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Authors and Affiliations

Evgeny Abakumov
Rustam Tembotov
Ivan Kushnov
Vyacheslav Polyakov

  1. Saint-Petersburg State University, 7/9 University Embankment, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia
  2. Tembotov Institute of Ecology of Mountain Territories, Russian Academy of Sciences, 37a, I. Armand Street, Nalchik, 360051, Russia
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Antarctica features one of the most ancient, largest glacier reserves and the most pristine environment left on the earth. However, in last few decade disturbances due to industrialization and release of greenhouse gases have led to serious consequences such as melting of polar ice sheets, changing atmospheric chemistry and ozone depletion. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing to understand the impact of subtle changes in environmental parameters on bacterial communities. We observed dominance of Cyanobacteria (41.93%) followed by Bacteroidetes (14.8%), Acidobacteria (13.35%), Proteobacteria (9.67%), Actinobacteria (7.79%), Firmicutes (3.46%) among all the samples collected every alternate day for 20 days. Additionally, metagenomic imputations revealed higher abundance of gene families associated with DNA repair and carotenoid biosynthesis enabling bacterial communities to resist and function under the high UV radiations. We further observed bacterial communities are dependent on the single carbon metabolism as a strategy for nutrient uptake in such nutrient deprived conditions.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kunal Jani
Anoop Mahajan
Swapnil Kajale
Aditee Ashar
Avinash Sharma

  1. National Centre for Cell Science, Pune, India
  2. Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Dr. Homi Bhabha road, Pune 411008, India
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This paper contributes to the studies on the lichen diversity of Barentsøya. It covers 211 species, of which four ( Buellia schaereri, Myriolecis zosterae var. palanderi, Rhizocarpon furfurosum, R. leptolepis) are reported for the first time for the Svalbard archipelago. Additionally, 84 of the species are reported for the first time for Barensøya. Our study includes 2 subspecies as well, both new for Barentsøya. Thirty-six species (16.8% among the identified species) are rare in Svalbard, whereas more than two thirds (70.1% from identified in the Barensøya) are relatively widespread species in Svalbard and the Arctic.
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Authors and Affiliations

Liudmila Konoreva
Sergey Chesnokov

  1. Avrorin Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden-Institute of Kola Scientific Centre of RAS, 184250 Kirovsk, Murmansk Region, Russia
  2. Komarov Botanical Institute RAS, Professor Popov St. 2, 197376 St. Petersburg, Russia
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European whitefish ( Coregonus lavaretus) is a highly polymorphic species, but the wider scale diversity and distribution of sympatric morphs in subarctic lakes of northwestern Russia has not been recently studied and analyzed. The aim of the present study was to investigate diversity and distribution of whitefish morphs in different sized lakes and watercourses of Murmansk region. Our study of the water bodies in four major river basins of Murmansk region revealed the presence of two whitefish morphs: sparsely rakered (further sr) and medium rakered ( mr). The mr morph is less common and observed only alongside the sr whitefish. In general, in sr whitefish the number of gill rakers ranges between 15 and 31, and in mr whitefish between 27 and 44. Among whitefishes with 27 to 31 gill rakers, both sr and mr morphs were observed and distinguishable by the shape of the rakers. In the studied sr whitefish populations, relatively long and short rakered whitefish morphs were found. In Lake Kuetsyarvi (Pasvik River basin), the sr and mr whitefish formed additional slow- and fastgrowing ecological morphs. The four whitefish morphs in Lake Kuetsyarvi specialize to different ecological niches correlating with morphological and behavioral differences. The observed diversity and distribution of whitefish in the Murmansk region requires genetic studies of the population to assess the origins of divergence.
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Authors and Affiliations

Elena Mikhailovna Zubova
Nikolay Alexandrovich Kashulin
Petr Mikhailovich Terentjev
Alexey Valerievich Melekhin

  1. Aquatic Ecosystems Laboratory at the Institute of Industrial Ecology of the North, Kola Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok 14a, 184209 Apatity, Murmansk region, Russia
  2. Flora and Vegetation Laboratory at the Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden-Institute, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok 18a, 184209 Apatity, Murmansk region, Russia

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