Applied sciences

Archive of Mechanical Engineering


Archive of Mechanical Engineering | 2023 | vol. 70 | No 2

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Microvibrations are mechanical oscillations caused by components such as the reaction wheels of an attitude control system of a spacecraft. These microvibrations are transferred through the spacecraft structure onto important instruments (e.g., optical instruments), causing those to produce diminished results (e.g., reduced image quality, imprecise geolocation etc.). At the present state, microvibrations in spacecraft cannot be actively controlled because their very high frequencies of up to 1000 Hz are above the control bandwidth a current attitude control system can provide. However, being able to reduce the effects of microvibrations on a space mission is becoming increasingly more critical as the envelope of future optical satellite missions expands. Furthermore, the advancements made in the performance of small satellites as well as the growing interest in laser and quantum communication call for a cost-efficient solution for managing microvibrations. This paper describes how cheap MEMS-based measurement systems have already proven that they are a potential solution. Showing high sensitivity and low-noise performance while allowing fast and easy prototyping.
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[4] C.J. Dennehy. A survey of reaction wheel disturbance modeling approaches for spacecraft line-of-sight jitter performance analysis. In Proceeding of 18 European Space Mechanisms and Tribology Symposium, Munich, Germany, 18-20 Sept. 2019.
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[7] M. Manso and M. Bezzeghoud. On-site sensor noise evaluation and detectability in low cost accelerometers. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Sensor Networks – SENSORNETS, pages 100–106. [Online], 9-10 Febr. 2021. doi: 10.5220/0010319001000106.
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[9] A. Wiebe. Entwicklung eines Teststandes zur Messung von Mikrovibrationen inklusive Auslegung eines Datenaufnahmesystems. Technical report, 2021.
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Authors and Affiliations

Antonio Garcia
Tim Gust
Enes Basata
Tim Gersting
Michal Deka
Sven Thiele
Mohammad Salah
Matias Bestard Koerner
Torben Runte
Miguel Gonzalez

  1. City University of Applied Sciences Bremen, Institute of Aerospace Technologies, Bremen, Germany
  2. German Aerospace Center – DLR, Institute of Space Systems. Guidance, Navigation and Control Systems. Bremen, Germany
  3. OHB System AG, Bremen, Germany
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Mass Spring Systems (MSS) are often used to simulate the behavior of deformable objects, for example in computer graphics (modeling clothes for virtual characters) or in medicine (surgical simulators that facilitate the planning of surgical operations) due to their simplicity and speed of calculation. This paper presents a new, two-parameter method (TP MSS) of determining the values of spring coefficients for this model. This approach can be distinguished by a constant parameter which is calculated once at the beginning of the simulation, and a variable parameter that must be updated at each simulation step. The value of this variable parameter depends on the shape changes of the elements forming the mesh of the simulated object. The considered mesh is built of elements in the shape of acute-angled triangles. The results obtained using the new model were compared to FEM simulations and the Van Gelder model. The simulation results for the new model were also compared with the results of the bubble inflation test.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sylwester Tudruj
Krzysztof Kurec
Janusz Piechna
Konrad Kamieniecki

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Aeronautics and Applied Mechanics, Warsaw, Poland
  2. Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Micromechanics and Photonics, Warsaw, Poland
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The Pump As Turbine (PAT) is an important technology for low-cost micro-hydropower and energy recovery, and hence the internal hydraulics of PAT needs to be clearly understood. Additionally, during its operation, the sediments in the water increase the roughness of the internal surfaces and may alter the internal hydraulics and PAT performance similar to a centrifugal pump or Francis turbine. The researchers tried hard to perform simple modifications such as impeller blade rounding to increase the efficiency of PAT. In this paper, the developed test rig is used to analyze the performance of the impeller blade rounding and is validated with a numerical model. This numerical model is further used to study the influence of impeller blade rounding and surface roughness on internal hydraulics and PAT performance. The impeller blade rounding at the most increased the PAT efficiency by 1-1.5 % at the Best efficiency point (Q=16.8 lps), mainly due to the wake reduction on the suction side and increased flow area. With increasing the surface roughness from 0-70 μm, the PAT efficiency is decreased maximum by 4 %. The efficiency was mainly reduced due to increased hydraulic losses at flow zone and disk friction losses at the non-flow zone.
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[1] P. P. Sharma, S. Chatterji, and B. Singh. Techno-economic analysis and modelling of standalone versus grid-connected small hydropower systems–a review of literature. International Journal of Sustainable Energy, 32(1):1–17, 2013. doi: 10.1080/14786451.2011.591492.
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[3] M. Binama, W.T. Su, X.B. Li, F.C. Li, X.Z. Wei, and S. An. Investigation on pump as turbine (PAT) technical aspects for micro hydropower schemes: A state-of-the-art review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 79:148–179, 2017. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2017.04.071.
[4] M.H. Shojaeefard and S. Saremian. Effects of impeller geometry modification on performance of pump as turbine in the urban water distribution network. Energy, 255:124550, 2022. doi: 10.1016/
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[6] A. Doshi, S. Channiwala, and P. Singh. Inlet impeller rounding in pumps as turbines: An experimental study to investigate the relative effects of blade and shroud rounding. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 82:333–348, 2017. doi: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2016.11.024.
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[9] H. Yang, L. Zhu, H. Xue, J. Duan, and F. Deng. A numerical analysis of the effect of impeller rounding on centrifugal pump as turbine. Processes, 9(9):1673, 2021. doi: 10.3390/pr9091673.
[10] A. Doshi, S. Channiwala, and P. Singh. Influence of nonflow zone (back cavity) geometry on the performance of pumps as turbines. Journal of Fluids Engineering, 140(12):121107, 2018. doi: 10.1115/1.4040300.
[11] S.-S. Yang, F.Y. Kong, J.-H. Fu, and L. Xue. Numerical research on effects of splitter blades to the influence of pump as turbine. International Journal of Rotating Machinery, 2012:123093. doi: 0.1155/2012/123093.
[12] A. Doshi. I nfluence of impeller inlet rounding and shape of non-flow zones on the performance of pump as turbine. Ph.D. Thesis, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat, India, 2016.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rahul Gaji
1 2
Ashish Doshi
Mukund Bade
Punit Singh

  1. Annasaheb Dange College of Engineering and Technology, Ashta, India
  2. Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat, India
  3. Centre for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India
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Bearings are one of the pivotal parts of rotating machines. The health of a bearing is responsible for the hassle-free operation of a machine. As vibration signatures give intimations of machine failure at an earlier stage, mostly vibration-based condition monitoring is used to monitor bearing’s health for avoiding the risk of failure. In this work, a simulation-based approach is adopted to identify surface defects at ball bearing raceways. The vibration data in time and frequency domain is captured by FFT analyzer from an experimental setup. The time frequency domain conversion of a raw time domain data was carried out by wavelet packet transform, as it takes into account the transients and spectral frequencies. The rotor bearing model is simulated in Ansys. Finally, most influencing statistical features were extracted by employing Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and fed to Multiclass Support Vector Machine (MSVM). To train the algorithm, the simulated data is used whereas the data acquired from FFT analyzer is used for testing. It can be concluded that the defects are characterized by Ball Pass Frequency (BPF) at inner race and outer raceway as indicated in the literature. The developed model is capable to monitor bearing’s health which gives an average accuracy of 99%.
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Authors and Affiliations

Pallavi Khaire
1 2
Vikas Phalle

  1. Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai, India
  2. Fr. C. Rodrigues Institute of Technology, Navi Mumbai, India
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Based on comprehensive interrelated mathematical and graphical-analytical models, including 3D cut layers and simulation of contact, strain, force, and thermal processes during gear hobbing friction forces, heat fluxes, and temperature on the teeth of the hob surface are investigated. Various physical phenomena are responsible for their wear: friction on contact surfaces and thermal flow. These factors act independently of each other; therefore, the worn areas are localized in different active parts of the hob. Friction causes abrasive wear and heat fluxes result in heat softening of the tool. Intense heat fluxes due to significant friction, acting on areas of limited area, lead to temperatures exceeding the critical temperature on certain edges of the high-speed cutter. Simulation results enable identification of high-temperature areas on the working surface of cutting edges, where wear is caused by various reasons, and make it possible to select different methods of hardening these surfaces. To create protective coatings with maximum heat resistance, it is advisable to use laser technologies, electro spark alloying, or plasma spraying, and for coatings that provide reduction of friction on the surfaces – formation of diamond-containing layers with minimum adhesion properties and low friction coefficient on the corresponding surfaces.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ihor Hrytsay
Vadym Stupnytskyy

  1. Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine
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The article aims at assessing the influence of the drill bit material on the bearing strength of holes made in glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite. Six twists made of widely used drill materials such as high speed steels and carbides in different configurations were selected to drill holes in the composite. In the first stage of the work, optimum drilling parameters were selected and then used for drilling holes in specimens tested in single lap shear experiments. For each tested specimen two different delamination factors, one based on the delamination area and another - on its diameter, were calculated in order to assess the quality of the holes and then compared to the results of the bearing strength experiments. The results of the bearing tests showed that the highest strength was achieved for the high speed steel drill with titanium coating while the lowest for the cemented carbide drill. This finding is in opposition to the majority of results reported in literature.
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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Galińska

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering, Warsaw, Poland
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To reduce the recoil and improve the stability of small arms, a muzzle brake compensator is attached to the muzzle of the barrel. This device uses the kinetic energy of the powder gas escaping from the bore after the bullet is fired. In this paper, the authors present the determination of the thermo-gas-dynamic model of the operation of a muzzle brake compensator and an example of calculating this type of muzzle device for the AK assault rifle using 7.62x39 mm ammunition. The results of the calculation allowed for obtaining the parameters of the powder gas flow in the process of flowing out of the muzzle device, as well as the change in the momentum of the powder gas's impact on the muzzle device. The model proposed in the article provides the basis for a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of using the muzzle device in stabilizing infantry weapons when firing.
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Authors and Affiliations

Dung Van Nguyen
Viet Quy Bui
Dung Thai Nguyen
Quyen Si Uong
Hieu Tu Truong

  1. Faculty of Special Equipment, Le Quy Don Technical University, Hanoi, Vietnam

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All submissions to the AME should be made electronically via Editorial System – an online submission and peer review system at First-time users must create an Author’s account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. All manuscripts receive individual identification codes that should be used in any correspondence with regard to the publication process. For the authors already registered in Editorial System it is enough to enter their username and password to log in as an author. The corresponding author should be identified while submitting a paper – personal e-mail address and postal address of the corresponding author are required. Please note that the manuscript should be prepared using our LaTeX or Word template and uploaded as a PDF file.

If you experience difficulties with the manuscript submission website, please contact the Assistant to the Editor of the AME (

All authors of the manuscript are responsible for its content; they must have agreed to its publication and have given the corresponding author the authority to act on their behalf in all matters pertaining to publication. The corresponding author is responsible for informing the co-authors of the manuscript status throughout the submission, review, and production process.

Length and arrangement

Papers (including tables and figures) should not exceed in length 25 pages of size 12.6 cm x 19.5 cm (printing area) with a font size of 11 pt. For manuscript preparation, the Authors should use the templates for Word or LaTeX available at the journal webpage. Please notice that the final layout of the article will be prepared by the journal's technical staff in LaTeX. Articles should be organized into the following sections:
  • List of keywords (separated by commas),
  • Full Name(s) of Author(s), Affiliation(s), Corresponding Author e-mail address,
  • Title,
  • Abstract,
  • Main text,
  • Appendix,
  • Acknowledgments (if applicable),
  • References.
Affiliations should include department, university, city and country. ORCID identifiers of all Authors should be added.
We suggest the title should be as short as possible but still informative.

An abstract should accompany every article. It should be a brief summary of significant results of the paper and give concise information about the content of the core idea of the paper. It should be informative and not only present the general scope of the paper, but also indicate the main results and conclusions. An abstract should not exceed 200 words.

Please follow the general rules for writing the main text of the paper:
  • use simple and declarative sentences, avoid long sentences, in which the meaning may be lost by complicated construction,
  • divide the main text into sections and subsections (if needed the subsections may be divided into paragraphs),
  • be concise, avoid idle words,
  • make your argumentation complete; use commonly understood terms; define all nonstandard symbols and abbreviations when you introduce them;
  • explain all acronyms and abbreviations when they first appear in the text;
  • use all units consistently throughout the article;
  • be self-critical as you review your drafts.
The authors are advised to use the SI system of units.


You may use line diagrams and photographs to illustrate theses from your text. The figures should be clear, easy to read and of good quality (300 dpi). The figures are preferred in a vector format (bitmap formats are acceptable, but not recommended). The size of the figures should be adequate to their contents. Use 8-9pt font size of the text within the figures.

You should use tables only to improve conciseness or where the information cannot be given satisfactorily in other ways. Tables should be numbered consecutively and referred to within the text by numbers. Each table should have an explanatory caption which should be as concise as possible. The figures and tables should be inserted in the text file, where they are mentioned.

Displayed equations should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers in parentheses. They should be centered, leaving a small space above and below to separate it from the surrounding text.


We encourage authors to restrict the use of footnotes. Information concerning research grant support should appear in a separate Acknowledgements section at the end of the paper. Acknowledgements of the assistance of colleagues or similar notes of appreciation should also appear in the Acknowledgements section.

References should be numbered and listed in the order that they appear in the text. References indicated by numerals in square brackets should complete the paper in the following style:

[1] R.O. Author. Title of the Book in Italics. Publisher, City, 2018.

Articles in Journals:
[2] D.F. Author, B.D. Second Author, and P.C. Third Author. Title of the article. Full Name of the Journal in Italics, 52(4):89–96, 2017. doi: 1234565/3554. (where means: 52 – volume; 4 – number or issue; 89–96 – pages, and 1234565/3554 – doi number (if exists).)

[3] W. Author. Title of the thesis. Ph.D. Thesis, University, City, Country, 2010.

Conference Proceedings:
[4] H. Author. Title of the paper. In Proc. Conference Name in Italics, pages 001–005, Conference Place, 10-15 Jan. 2015. doi: 98765432/7654vd.

English language

Archive of Mechanical Engineering is published in English. Make sure that your manuscript is clearly and grammatically written. The content should be understandable and should not cause any confusion to the readers, including the reviewers. After accepting the manuscript for a publication in the AME, we offer a free language check service, for correcting small language mistakes.

Submission of Revised Articles

When revision of a manuscript is requested, authors are expected to deliver the revised version of the manuscript as soon as possible. The manuscript should be uploaded directly to the Editorial System as an answer to the Editor's decision, and not as a new manuscript. If it is the 1st revision, the authors are expected to return revised manuscript within 60 days; if it is the 2nd revision, the authors are expected to return revised manuscript within 14 days. Additional time for resubmission must be requested in advance. If the above mentioned deadlines are not met, the manuscript may be treated as a new submission.

Outline of the Production Process

Once an article has been accepted for publication, the manuscript is transferred into our production system to be language-edited and formatted. Language/technical editors reserve the privilege of editing manuscripts to conform with the stylistic conventions of the journal. Once the article has been typeset, PDF proofs are generated so that authors can approve all editing and layout.


Proofreading should be carried out once a final draft has been produced. Since the proofreading stage is the last opportunity to correct the article to be published, the authors are requested to make every effort to check for errors in their proofs before the paper is posted online. Authors may be asked to address remarks and queries from the language and/or technical editors. Queries are written only to request necessary information or clarification of an unclear passage. Please note that language/technical editors do not query at every instance where a change has been made. It is the author's responsibility to read the entire text, tables, and figure legends, not just items queried. Major alterations made will always be submitted to the authors for approval. The corresponding author receives e-mail notification when a PDF is available and should return the comments within 3 days of receipt. Comments must be uploaded to Editorial System.


The Editorial Board of the Archive of Mechanical Engineering (AME) sincerely expresses gratitude to the following individuals who devoted their time to review papers submitted to the journal. Particularly, we express our gratitude to those who reviewed papers several times.

List of reviewers in 2023

Sara I. ABDELSALAM – University of California Riverside, United States
M. ARUNA – Liwa College of Technology, United Arab Emirates
Krzysztof BADYDA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Nathalie BÄSCHLIN – Kunstmuseum Bern, Germany
Joanna BIJAK – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Tomas BODNAR – The Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic
Dariusz BUTRYMOWICZ – Białystok University of Technology, Poland
Suleyman CAGAN – Mechanical Engineering, Mersin University, Turkey
Claudia CASAPULLA – University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Peng CHEN – Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, China
Yao CHENG – Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China
Jan de JONG – University of Twente, Netherlands
Mariusz DEJA – Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Jerzy EJSMONT – Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
İsmail ESEN – Karabuk University, Turkey
Pedro Javier GAMEZ-MONTERO – Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Spain
Aman GARG – National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India
Michał HAĆ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Satoshi ISHIKAWA – Kyushu University, Japan
Jacek JACKIEWICZ – Kazimierz Wielki University, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Krzysztof JAMROZIAK – Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
Hong-Lae JANG – Changwon National University, Korea (South)
Łukasz JANKOWSKI – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, PAS, Gdansk, Poland
Albizuri JOSEBA – University of the Basque Country, Spain
Łukasz KAPUSTA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Dariusz KARDAŚ – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, PAS, Gdansk, Poland
Panagiotis KARMIRIS-OBRATAŃSKI – AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland
Sivakumar KARTHIKEYAN – SRM Nagar
Tarek KHELFA – Hunan University of Humanities Science and Technology, China
Sven-Joachim KIMMERLE – Universität der Bundeswehr München, Germany
Thomas KLETSCHKOWSKI – HAW Hamburg, Germany
Piotr KLONOWICZ – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, PAS, Gdansk, Poland
Vladis KOSSE – Queensland University of Technology, Australia
Mariusz KOSTRZEWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Maria KOTELKO – Lodz University of Technology, Poland
Michał KOWALIK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Zbigniew KRZEMIANOWSKI – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Gdańsk, Poland
Slawomir KUBACKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Mieczysław KUCZMA – Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Waldemar KUCZYŃSKI – The Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
Rafał KUDELSKI – AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland
Rajesh KUMAR – Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, India
Mustafa KUNTOĞLU – Selcuk University, Turkey
Anna LEE – Pohang University of Science and Technology, South Korea, Korea (South)
Guolong LI – Chongqing University, China
Luxian LI – Xi'an Jiaotong University, China
Yingchao LI – Ludong University, Yantai, China
Xiaochuan LIN – Nanjing Tech University, China
Zhihong LIN – HuaQiao University, China
Yakun LIU – Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States
Jinjun LU – Northwest University, Xiʼan, China
Paweł MACIĄG – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Paweł MALCZYK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Emil MANOACH – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
Mihaela MARIN – “Dunărea de Jos” University of Galati, Romania
Miloš MATEJIĆ – University of Kragujevac, Serbia
Krzysztof MIANOWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Tran MINH TU – Hanoi University of Civil Engineering, Viet Nam
Farhad Sadegh MOGHANLOU – University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
Mohsen MOTAMEDI – University of Isfahan, Iran
Adis MUMINOVIC – University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Mohamed NASR – National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
Huu-That NGUYEN – Nha Trang University, Viet Nam
Tan-Luy NGUYEN – Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Viet Nam
Viorel PALEU – Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania
Nicolae PANC – Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Marcin PĘKAL – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Van Vinh PHAM – Le Quy Don Technical University, Hanoi, Viet Nam
Vaclav PISTEK – Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
Paweł PYRZANOWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Lei QIN – Beijing Information Science & Technology University, China
Milan RACKOV – University of Novi Sad, Serbia
Yuriy ROMASEVYCH – National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine
Artur RUSOWICZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej SACHAJDAK – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Mirosław SEREDYŃSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Maciej SUŁOWICZ – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Biswajit SWAIN – National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India
Tadeusz SZYMCZAK – Motor Transport Institute, Warsaw, Poland
Reza TAHERDANGKOO – Institute of Geotechnics, Freiberg, Germany
Rulong TAN – Chongqing University of Technology, China
Daniel TOBOŁA – Łukasiewicz Research Network - Cracow Institute of Technology, Poland
Milan TRIFUNOVIĆ – University of Niš, Serbia
Duong VU – Duy Tan University, Viet Nam
Shaoke WAN – Xi’an Jiaotong University, China
Dong WEI – Northwest A&F University, Yangling , China
Marek WOJTYRA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Mateusz WRZOCHAL – Kielce University of Technology, Poland
Hugo YAÑEZ-BADILLO – TecNM: Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores de Tianguistenco, Mexico
Guichao YANG – Nanjing Tech University, China
Xiao YANG – Chongqing Technology and Business University, China
Yusuf Furkan YAPAN – Yildiz Technical University, Turkey
Luhe ZHANG – Chongqing University, China
Xiuli ZHANG – Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, China

List of reviewers in 2022
Isam Tareq ABDULLAH – Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq
Ahmed AKBAR – University of Technology, Iraq
Nandalur AMER AHAMMAD – University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia
Ali ARSHAD – Riga Technical University, Latvia
Ihsan A. BAQER – University of Technology, Iraq
Thomas BAR – Daimler AG, Stuttgart, Germany
Huang BIN – Zhejiang University, Zhoushan, China
Zbigniew BULIŃSKI – Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Onur ÇAVUSOGLU – Gazi University, Turkey
Ali J CHAMKHA – Duy Tan University, Da Nang , Vietnam
Dexiong CHEN – Putian University, China
Xiaoquan CHENG – Beihang University, Beijing, China
Piotr CYKLIS – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Agnieszka DĄBSKA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Raphael DEIMEL – Berlin University of Technology, Germany
Zhe DING – Wuhan University of Science and Technology, China
Anselmo DINIZ – University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
Paweł FLASZYŃSKI – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Gdańsk, Poland
Jerzy FLOYRAN – University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
Xiuli FU – University of Jinan, China
Piotr FURMAŃSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Artur GANCZARSKI – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Ahmad Reza GHASEMI– University of Kashan, Iran
P.M. GOPAL – Anna University, Regional Campus Coimbatore, India
Michał GUMNIAK – Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Bali GUPTA – Jaypee University of Engineering and Technology, India
Dmitriy GVOZDYAKOV – Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia
Jianyou HAN – University of Science and Technology, Beijing, China
Tomasz HANISZEWSKI – Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Juipin HUNG – National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan
T. JAAGADEESHA – National Institute of Technology, Calicut, India
Jacek JACKIEWICZ – Kazimierz Wielki University, Bydgoszcz, Poland
JC JI – University of Technology, Sydney, Australia
Feng JIAO – Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, China
Daria JÓŹWIAK-NIEDŹWIEDZKA – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland
Rongjie KANG – Tianjin University, China
Dariusz KARDAŚ – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Gdansk, Poland
Leif KARI – KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Daria KHANUKAEVA – Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Russia
Sven-Joachim KIMMERLE – Universität der Bundeswehr München, Germany
Yeong-Jin KING – Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia
Kaushal KISHORE – Tata Steel Limited, Jamshedpur, India
Nataliya KIZILOVA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Adam KLIMANEK – Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Vladis KOSSE – Queensland University of Technology, Australia
Maria KOTEŁKO – Lodz University of Technology, Poland
Roman KRÓL – Kazimierz Pulaski University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Poland
Krzysztof KUBRYŃSKI – Airforce Institute of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
Mieczysław KUCZMA – Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Paweł KWIATOŃ – Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland
Lihui Lang – Beihang University, China
Rafał LASKOWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Guolong Li – Chongqing University, China
Leo Gu LI – Guangzhou University, China
Pengnan LI – Hunan University of Science and Technology, China
Nan LIANG – University of Toronto, Mississauga, Canada
Michał LIBERA – Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Wen-Yi LIN – Hungkuo Delin University of Technology, Taiwan
Wojciech LIPINSKI – Austrialian National University, Canberra, Australia
Linas LITVINAS – Vilnius University, Lithuania
Paweł MACIĄG – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Krishna Prasad MADASU – National Institute of Technology Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
Trent MAKI – Amino North America Corporation, Canada
Marco MANCINI – Institut für Energieverfahrenstechnik und Brennstofftechnik, Germany
Piotr MAREK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Miloš MATEJIĆ – University of Kragujevac, Serbia
Phani Kumar MEDURI – VIT-AP University, Amaravati, India
Fei MENG – University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, China
Saleh MOBAYEN – University of Zanjan, Iran
Vedran MRZLJAK – Rijeka University, Croatia
Adis MUMINOVIC – University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Mohamed Fawzy NASR – National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
Paweł OCŁOŃ – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Yusuf Aytaç ONUR – Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University, Turkey
Grzegorz ORZECHOWSKI – LUT University, Lappeenranta, Finland
Halil ÖZER – Yıldız Technical University, Turkey
Muthuswamy PADMAKUMAR – Technology Centre Kennametal India Ltd., Bangalore, India
Viorel PALEU – Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania
Andrzej PANAS – Warsaw Military Academy, Poland
Carmine Maria PAPPALARDO – University of Salerno, Italy
Paweł PARULSKI – Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Antonio PICCININNI – Politecnico di Bari, Italy
Janusz PIECHNA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Vaclav PISTEK – Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
Grzegorz PRZYBYŁA – Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Paweł PYRZANOWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
K.P. RAJURKARB – University of Nebraska-Lincoln, United States
Michał REJDAK – Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal, Zabrze, Poland
Krzysztof ROGOWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Juan RUBIO – University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Artur RUSOWICZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Wagner Figueiredo SACCO – Universidade Federal Fluminense, Petropolis, Brazil
Andrzej SACHAJDAK – Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Bikash SARKAR – NIT Meghalaya, Shillong, India
Bozidar SARLER – University of Lubljana, Slovenia
Veerendra SINGH – TATA STEEL, India
Wieńczysław STALEWSKI – Institute of Aviation, Warsaw, Poland
Cyprian SUCHOCKI – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland
Maciej SUŁOWICZ – Cracov University of Technology, Poland
Wojciech SUMELKA – Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Tomasz SZOLC – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland
Oskar SZULC – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Gdansk, Poland
Rafał ŚWIERCZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Raquel TABOADA VAZQUEZ – University of Coruña, Spain
Halit TURKMEN – Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
Daniel UGURU-OKORIE – Federal University, Oye Ekiti, Nigeria
Alper UYSAL – Yildiz Technical University, Turkey
Yeqin WANG – Syndem LLC, United States
Xiaoqiong WEN – Dalian University of Technology, China
Szymon WOJCIECHOWSKI – Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Marek WOJTYRA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Guenter WOZNIAK – Technische Universität Chemnitz, Germany
Guanlun WU – Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Xiangyu WU – University of California at Berkeley, United States
Guang XIA – Hefei University of Technology, China
Jiawei XIANG – Wenzhou University, China
Jinyang XU – Shanghai Jiao Tong University,China
Jianwei YANG – Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, China
Xiao YANG – Chongqing Technology and Business University, China
Oguzhan YILMAZ – Gazi University, Turkey
Aznifa Mahyam ZAHARUDIN – Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia
Zdzislaw ZATORSKI – Polish Naval Academy, Gdynia, Poland
S.H. ZHANG – Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Yu ZHANG – Shenyang Jianzhu University, China
Shun-Peng ZHU – University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China
Yongsheng ZHU – Xi’an Jiaotong University, China

List of reviewers of volume 68 (2021)
Ahmad ABDALLA – Huaiyin Institute of Technology, China
Sara ABDELSALAM – University of California, Riverside, United States
Muhammad Ilman Hakimi Chua ABDULLAH – Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
Hafiz Malik Naqash AFZAL – University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Reza ANSARI – University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
Jeewan C. ATWAL – Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India
Hadi BABAEI – Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Sakthi BALAN – K. Ramakrishnan college of Engineering, Trichy, India
Leszek BARANOWSKI – Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
Elias BRASSITOS – Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon
Tadeusz BURCZYŃSKI – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland
Nguyen Duy CHINH – Hung Yen University of Technology and Education, Hung Yen, Vietnam
Dorota CHWIEDUK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Adam CISZKIEWICZ – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Meera CS – University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Duhradun, India
Piotr CYKLIS – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Abanti DATTA – Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, India
Piotr DEUSZKIEWICZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Dinesh DHANDE – AISSMS College of Engineering, Pune, India
Sufen DONG – Dalian University of Technology, China
N. Godwin Raja EBENEZER – Loyola-ICAM College of Engineering and Technology, Chennai, India
Halina EGNER – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Fehim FINDIK – Sakarya University of Applied Sciences, Turkey
Artur GANCZARSKI – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Peng GAO – Northeastern University, Shenyang, China
Rafał GOŁĘBSKI – Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej GRZEBIELEC – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Ngoc San HA – Curtin University, Perth, Australia
Mehmet HASKUL – University of Sirnak, Turkey
Michal HATALA – Technical University of Košice, Slovak Republic
Dewey HODGES – Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, United States
Hamed HONARI – Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States
Olga IWASINSKA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Emmanuelle JACQUET – University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France
Maciej JAWORSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Xiaoling JIN – Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
Halil Burak KAYBAL – Amasya University, Turkey
Vladis KOSSE – Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
Krzysztof KUBRYŃSKI – Air Force Institute of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
Waldemar KUCZYŃSKI – Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
Igor KURYTNIK – State Higher School in Oswiecim, Poland
Daniel LESNIC – University of Leeds, United Kingdom
Witold LEWANDOWSKI – Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Guolu LI – Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, China
Jun LI – Xi’an Jiaotong University, China
Baiquan LIN – China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China
Dawei LIU – Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, China
Luis Norberto LÓPEZ DE LACALLE – University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Spain
Ming LUO – Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, China
Xin MA – Shandong University, Jinan, China
Najmuldeen Yousif MAHMOOD – University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq
Arun Kumar MAJUMDER – Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India
Paweł MALCZYK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Miloš MATEJIĆ – University of Kragujevac, Serbia
Norkhairunnisa MAZLAN – Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
Dariusz MAZURKIEWICZ – Lublin University of Technology, Poland
Florin MINGIREANU – Romanian Space Agency, Bucharest, Romania
Vladimir MITYUSHEV – Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland
Adis MUMINOVIC – University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Baraka Olivier MUSHAGE – Université Libre des Pays des Grands Lacs, Goma, Congo (DRC)
Tomasz MUSZYŃSKI – Gdansk University of Technology, Poland
Mohamed NASR – National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
Driss NEHARI – University of Ain Temouchent, Algeria
Oleksii NOSKO – Bialystok University of Technology, Poland
Grzegorz NOWAK – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Iwona NOWAK – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Samy ORABY – Pharos University in Alexandria, Egypt
Marcin PĘKAL – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Bo PENG – University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom
Janusz PIECHNA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Maciej PIKULIŃSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
T.V.V.L.N. RAO – The LNM Institute of Information Technology, Jaipur, India
Andrzej RUSIN – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Artur RUSOWICZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Benjamin SCHLEICH – Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany
Jerzy SĘK – Lodz University of Technology, Poland
Reza SERAJIAN – University of California, Merced, USA
Artem SHAKLEIN – Udmurt Federal Research Center, Izhevsk, Russia
G.L. SHI – Guangxi University of Science and Technology, Liuzhou, China
Muhammad Faheem SIDDIQUI – Vrije University, Brussels, Belgium
Jarosław SMOCZEK – AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland
Josip STJEPANDIC – PROSTEP AG, Darmstadt, Germany
Pavel A. STRIZHAK – Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia
Vadym STUPNYTSKYY – Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine
Miklós SZAKÁLL – Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany
Agnieszka TOMASZEWSKA – Gdansk University of Technology, Poland
Artur TYLISZCZAK – Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland
Aneta USTRZYCKA – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland
Alper UYSAL – Yildiz Technical University, Turkey
Gabriel WĘCEL – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Marek WĘGLOWSKI – Welding Institute, Gliwice, Poland
Frank WILL – Technische Universität Dresden, Germany
Michał WODTKE – Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Marek WOJTYRA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Włodzimierz WRÓBLEWSKI – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Hongtao WU – Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China
Jinyang XU – Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Zhiwu XU – Harbin Institute of Technology, China
Zbigniew ZAPAŁOWICZ – West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
Zdzislaw ZATORSKI – Polish Naval Academy, Gdynia, Poland
Wanming ZHAI – Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China
Xin ZHANG – Wenzhou University of Technology, China
Su ZHAO – Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, China

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